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REXBURG ID 83460-0405 


31404 007861492 


\ V>IAM 1 S 2006 




OCT 2 4 2009 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 







R. H. CHARLES, D.Litt., D.D. 



G. H. BOX, M.A. 

lecturer in rabbinical Hebrew, king's college, London 
hon. canon of st. albans 





The object of this series of translations is primarily 
to furnish students with short, cheap, and handy 
text-books, which, it is hoped, will facilitate the 
study of the particular texts in class under com- 
petent teachers. But it is also hoped that the 
volumes will be acceptable to the general reader 
who may be interested in the subjects with which 
they deal. It has been thought advisable, as a 
general rule, to restrict the notes and comments to 
a small compass; more especially as, in most cases, 
excellent works of a more elaborate character are 
available. Indeed, it is much to be desired that 
these translations may have the effect of inducing 
readers to study the larger works. 

Our principal aim, in a word, is to make some 
difficult texts, important for the study of Christian 
origins, more generally accessible in faithful and 
scholarly translations. 

In most cases these texts are not available in a 
cheap and handy form. In one or two cases texts 
have been included of books which are available 
in the official Apocrypha; but in every such case 
reasons exist for putting forth these texts in a new 
translation, with an Introduction, in this series. 

We desire to express our thanks to Canon Charles 
and Messrs. A. and C. Black, for their permission to 
reprint here the translation of The Hook of Jubilees, 
published in 1902. 

W. 0. E. Oesterley. 
G. II Box. 


Short Account of the Book 

The Book of Jubilees, or, as it is sometimes called, 
" the little Genesis," purports to be a revelation 
given by God to Moses through the medium of an 
angel (" the Angel of the Presence," i. 27), and con- 
taining a history, divided up into jubilee-periods of 
forty-nine years, from the creation to the coming of 
Moses. Though the actual narrative of events is 
only carried down to the birth and early career of 
Moses, its author envisages the events of a later time, 
and in particular certain events of special interest 
at the time when he wrote, which was probably in the 
latter years of the second century B.C., perhaps in the 
reign_ of the Maccabean prince John Hyrcanus. 
Though "distinguished from the Pentateuch proper 
(" the first Law," vi. 22), it presupposes and supple- 
ments the latter. The actual narrative embraces 
material contained in the whole of Genesis and part 
of Exodus. But the legal regulations given pre- 
suppose other parts of the Pentateuch, especially 
the so-called " Priest's Code " (P), and certain details 
in the narrative are probably intended to apply to 
events that occurred in the author's own time (the 
latter years of the second century B.C.). The author 
himself seems to have contemplated the speedy 
inauguration of the Messianic Age, and in this respect 
his point of view is similar to that of the Apocalyptic 
writers. But his work, though it contains one or two 
passages of an apocalyptic character, 4s quite unlike 
the typical apocalypses. It is largely narrative 
based upon the historical narratives in Genesis and 



Exodus, interspersed with legends, and emphasizing 
certain legal practices (such as the strict observance 
of the Sabbath, circumcision, etc.), and laying much 
stress upon their eternal obligation. But his main 
object was to inculcate a reform in the regulation of 
the calendar and festivals, in place of the intercalated 
lunar calendar, which he condemns in the strongest 
language. He proposes to substitute for this a solar 
calendar consisting of 12 months and containing 
364 days. The result of such a system is to make 
all festivals, except the Day of Atonement, fall on 
a Sunday ; the author also fixes the date of the Feast 
of Weeks (Pentecost) on Sivan 15th (in place of the 
traditional Sivan 6th). He obviously believes that 
the prevailing system has produced grave conse- 
quences in religious practice. The proper observance 
of the feasts, which had been prescribed by divine 
authority, is, according to his view, rendered im- 
possible so long as the right principles for regulating 
the calendar are ignored. These principles are 
justified from the written Law, and are represented 
as having been ordained in heaven. To what party 
or tendency in Judaism did the * author belong ? 
Various answers have been given to this question, 
which will be fully discussed below. It is very diffi- 
cult to believe, as Dr. Charles contends, that the 
author was a Pharisee, for the positions he advocates 
are in many respects fundamentally opposed to later 
Pharisaic practice. In particular, how can any mem- 
ber of the Pharisaic party, which from its beginning 
championed popular religious custom, have advocated 
a solar, calendar ? More can be said for the view that 
the author Was a member of the Hasidim or " pious " 
(who must not be confounded with the Pharisees), 
while in a recent important discussion Leszynsky 
has made out a strong, if not quite convincing, case 
for Sadducean authorship. The Book has sometimes 
been styled a Midrash, but such a descriptive term 
needs some qualification. It claims to be a revela- 
tion, and not a mere exposition of Genesis and 


Exodus. At the same time, there is a certain Mid- 
rashic tendency observable in the way the author 
rewrites the older narratives, which reminds one of 
the work of the Chronicler as compared with the 
earlier canonical books which he remodelled. But 
Jubilees is not at all like the typical Midrash of the 
later Rabbinical period ; it is more independent, and 
resembles rather such works as the " Chronicles of 
Jerahmeel," or the earlier (narrative) part of the 

Apocalypse of Abraham." 

The Book, which was probably composed in 
Hebrew, is divided into fifty chapters, and appears 
to be complete. 


The Book was known under various titles, most of 
them in Greek as referred to in later. Greek writers. 
The most important are " Jubilees " (= ra 'Iw/fyAcua 
or ol 'Iw/fyXatoi) and " the little Genesis " (=4 ktnrrj 
rfaais and variants). Both of these seem to go 
back to Hebrew originals, and there would thus 
appear to have been two authoritative Hebrew 
titles of the original Hebrew work, viz. ha-ydbeltm 
(or sefer hd-ydbeldlh), and Bereshith zutd. In the 
latter the epithet " little " l refers not to the extent 
of the work, but to its relatively inferior position as 
compared with the canonical Genesis. It is also 
noteworthy that a clear reference to our Book is 
made in the recently recovered fragments of a 
11 Zadokite Work." 2 The passage runs as follows 
(xx. i) : 

And as for the exact statement of their periods to put 
Israel in remembrance in regard to all these, behold it 
is treated accurately in the Book of the Divisions of the 
Seasons according to their Jubilees and their Weeks. 

This is remarkably like the opening words of the 
Prologue of our Book : This is the history of the division 

1 Applied p.lso to ^certain minor midrashlm (" midrash 
ratt," etc.). 
■ First published by Schechter in iqio (Cambridge Press). 


of the days . . . of the events of the years according 
to their (year-) weeks, according to their jubilees. . . . 
Cf. also the colophon at the end of the Book : 

Herewith is completed the account of the division of 
the days. 

Other 'titles of our Book are : The> Atocalypse of 
Moses (Syncellus) ; The Testament df Moses (the Catena 
of Nicephonis) ; The Book of Adam's 'Daughters 
(perhaps applied only to a portion of fubilees) ; The 
Life of Adam (perhaps an amplified excerpt of oar 

Versions and Original Language 

The complete text of the Book is extant in an 
Ethiopic Version, which is also the most accurate 
that has survived. Four MSS. of it are known, and 
are preserved in European Libraries, the two most 
important in the National Library in Paris and in 
the British Museum respectively. A critical edition 
of the text, based on all the known MSS., has been 
published by Dr. Charles (Oxford, 1895), which was 
preceded by an important one by Dillmann (published 
1859). Fragments of a Greek, Latin and (possibly) 
a Syriac version are also extant. The fragments of 
the Greek version are contained in numerous citations 
in Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Antioch, 
Isidore of Alexandria, Epiphanius, Syncellus and 
other writers. The Latin version, of which about 
one-fourth has been preserved, is very valuable for 
the criticism of the text. The fragments that have 
survived were first published by Ceriani (in his 
Monumenta Sacra et Prof ana, 1861), and have been 
edited by Ronsch (1874), and more recently by 
Charles (in his edition of the Ethiopic text referred to 
above). What may possibly be a fragment of a 
Syriac Version of our Book is contained in a British 
Museum MS. (Add! 12154, fol. 180) entitled " Names 
of the Wives of the Patriarchs according to the 
Hebrew Book called Jubilees." But whether this 


is really part of a complete version is very doubtful 
(see Charles, op. cit. t Appendix iii.). 

It is generally agreed that both the Ethiopic and 
Latin versions were translated from the Greek 
which, it may be inferred from the large number of 
quotations scattered about in different writers over 
a wide period, must have been widely diffused. The 
fact that a Greek text underlies these versions is 
clear from such phenomena as the presence, in the 
Ethiopic, of transliterations of Greek words (e. g. 
rjXiov, "of the sun," in xxxiv. n) ; proper names are 
transliterated as they appear in Greek, not in Hebrew ; 
and certain textual corruptions can only be explained 
by reference to an underlying Greek text. Similar 
phenomena characterize the Latin version. Thus in 
xxxviii. 12, " timoris " = SuAm?, which is corrupt 
for SovAcms ; and sometimes the Greek has been mis- 
understood, as e. g. in xxxviii. 13, " honorem "=rtfirjv, 
which should have been rendered by " tributum." 

It is more difficult to determine whether a Semitic 
original underlies the Greek, and, if that be the case, 
whether the original Semitic text was Hebrew or 
Aramaic. It must be admitted that in a number 
of passages where the text of the canonical Genesis 
is cited the Ethiopic agrees with the LXX against 
all other authorities (see Charles' Jubilees, p. xxxiv). 
But these cases are not, on the whole, either numerous 
or important. 1 On the other hand, the Ethiopic 
often agrees with the LXX, supported by other 
authorities (especially the Samaritan text and version) 
against the Masoretic Hebrew text, and there are 
other variations in the textual phenomena. From a 
survey of these phenomena Charles deduces the 
conclusion, no doubt rightly, that " our book attests 
an independent form of the Hebrew text of the 
Pentateuch. . . . Our book represents some form 
of the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch midway between 
the forms presupposed by the LXX and the Syriac." 2 

1 They may be due to assimilation in the Greek Version 
with the LXX. 2 Jubilees, p. xxxviii. 


It agrees with the LXX, or with combinations into 
which the LXX enters, more often than with any 
other authority or group of authorities. On the 
other hand, it is often independent of the LXX, and 
in a considerable number of cases attests readings, 
with the support of MT and Sam., agajnst the LXX, 
and manifestly superior to the latter.' 'It is note- 
worthy that it never agrees with M against all the 
other authorities. These phenomena suggest that 
the composition of Jubilees is to be assigned to 
" some period between 250 B.C. (LXX version of the 
Pentateuch) and a.d. 100 [when M was finally fixed], 
and at a time nearer the earlier date than the latter." l 
A number of considerations may be adduced which 
suggest that the original language of Jubilees was 
Hebrew. Thus mistranslations of Hebrew words 
occur, e. g. in xliii. 11, the word rendered (as cor- 
rected) " I pray thee," is, in the Ethiopic, " in me " — 
a confusion of the Hebrew bi = Scofuzt (Gen. xliv. 18) 
with the Hebrew word (spelt in exactly the same way) 
which = "in me;" there are also numerous 
Hebraisms surviving in the Ethiopic and Latin 
versions, 2 as well as paronomasiae based upon Hebrew 
words. 8 It is noteworthy, also, that the author lays 
special stress upon the sacred character of Hebrew, 
which was originally the language of creation (cf. 
xii. 25-26; xliii. 15). Moreover, he represents his 
work as having emanated from Moses, and a genuinely 
Mosaic work would naturally be written in Hebrew. 
Finally, certain parts of Jubilees, or of something 
remarkably like Jubilees, have survived in Hebrew 
form in certain Hebrew books, especially the Chronicles 
of Jerahmeel, and the Midrash Tadshe. It is not 
improbable, also, that a Hebrew form of Jubilees was 
known to the compiler of the Pirke de R. Eliezer (see 
Friedlander's Introduction to the latter book, p. xxii). 
The only ground for suggesting that the Semitic 

1 Ob. (.it., p. xxxix. 

1 Cf. 6. g. xxii. 10, " eligere in te " = Heb. bdbar be. 

3 See Charles, op. cit., p. xxxiii for details. 


original may have been Aramaic rather than Hebrew 
is the presence of certain Aramaizing forms of proper 
names (e. g. Filistin, with the termination n instead 
of m) in the Latin version. But in all these cases 
the Ethiopic transliteration has m (not n), and it 
seems probable that the Aramaizing forms in these 
cases are due to the Latin translator, who there is 
other ground for supposing was a Palestinian Jew. 
We may, therefore, safely conclude that the original 
language of our Book was Hebrew. 

Affinities with other Literature 

Though there is no reason to doubt the essential 
unity of our Book (that is to say, that it was composed 
and written in its present form by one author), it is 
equally clear that this writer incorporated earlier 
traditions and legends into his work. Thus he refers 
explicitly to Noachic writings (xxi. 10; cf. x. 13), 
and has apparently incorporated two considerable 
sections of a " Book of Noah " in vii. 20-39 anc ^ x - 
1-15. It is well-known that this Noachic Book was 
also one of the sources of the Book of Enoch, 1 Enoch, 
vi.-xi., lx., lxv.-lxix. 25, and cvi.-cvii. being probably 
derived from it. There is reason, also, to believe that 
the author of Jubilees was acquainted with some form 
of the Book of Enoch (1 Enoch). According to 
Charles the parts of 1 Enoch with which our author 
was acquainted are 1 Enoch vi.-xvi., xxiii.-xxxvi. 
and lxxii.-xc. He seems clearly to refer to the last 
section in iv. 17 : 

And he [Enoch] was the first among men that are born 
on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom 
and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to 
the order of their months in a book, that men might 
know the seasons of Hie years according to the order of 
their separate months. 

Here the Enoch-book referred to forms a description 
of 1 Enoch' lxxii.-lxxxii. (" the Book of the courses 
of the Heavenly Luminaries "), while iv. 19 [And 


what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his 
sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout 
their generations until the day of judgement ; he saw 
and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, 
and placed the testimony on earth for all the children 
of men and for their generations) forms an exact descrip- 
tion of the " Dream-Visions " in I Enoch lxxxiii.-xc. 1 
There are also a number of parallels with the Testa- 
ments of the XII Patriarchs, but these are not sufficient 
to show dependence on either side; the phenomena 
rather suggest that both writers are using common 
sources: ct. xxviii. 9; xxx. 2-6, 18, 25; xxxi. 3-4, 
13, 15, 16; xxxii. 1, 8; xxxiii. 1, 2, 4; xxxiv. 1-9; 
xxxvii.-xxxviii. ; xli. 8-14, 24-25; xlvi. 6-9. 

It has already been mentioned that a knowledge of 
our Book seems to be presupposed in some of the 
later Jewish literature. Thus the Chronicles of 
Jerahmeel, a late compilation written in Hebrew, 
contains much material, common to Jubilees ; at 
times it reproduces the actual words of the text of 
the latter. Another late Jewish work, the Midrash 
Tadshe, contains passages which are largely identical 
with portions of the text of our Book. This Midrash 
was compiled in its present form by Moses ha- 
Darshan in the eleventh century a.d., but is based 
upon a much earlier work by R. Pinchas b. Jair 
(end of second century, a.d.), who utilized materials 
from our Book. Besides the above, our Book appears 
to have been known to the compiler of the Samaritan 
Chronicle (twelfth century, a.d.), and also to the 
compiler of the Pirke de K. Eliezer (finally redacted 
in the ninth century a.d.). In fact, in both cases 
there is implicit a certain amount of polemic (espe- 
cially in calendar-matters) against the positions 
advocated in Jubilees. But besides this, there is a 
remarkable parallelism in subject-matter between 
our Book and the Pirke de K. Eliezer, to which 
Friedlander calls attention. He points out that 
both " are alike in being practically Midrashic para- 
1 For further parallels see Charles, Jubilees, pp. lxviii ft. 


phrases and expansions of the narratives contained 
in the Book of Genesis and part of the Book of 
Exodus. . . . Both books deal with the Calendar . . . 
and in this respect they recall the Books of Enoch." 
Both " have chapters setting forth the story of the 
Creation (Mdaseh Bereshith). . . . The past is re- 
called and the future revealed. The nature of God, 
angels and man is unfolded. We read of sin and grace, 
repentance and atonement, good and evil, life and 
death, Paradise and Gehenna, Satan and Messiah." l 
Numerous references to Jubilees occur in Christian 
literature (patristic period and later), where long 
extracts from the Book are often cited, and by name. 
These have been collected by Charles (op. cit., 
pp. lxxvii ff.), who also cites a number of parallels 
oetween our Book and the New Testament. But 
these are somewhat vague, and are hardly sufficient 
to establish any real or direct connexion. 

The Special Aims and General Character of the 


It is obvious that Jubilees is dominated by certain 
interests and antipathies. It is to a large extent 
polemical in character, and its author desires at once 
to protest against certain tendencies which, in his 
view, threaten true religion, and to inculcate certain 
reforms. Incidentally it commends certain religious 
practices, and endeavours to invest them with en- 
hanced sanctions. In the forefront, as its name (" the 
Book of Jubilees ") suggests, 2 stands the question 
of the Calendar. It is all important in the author's 
view that the divinely ordained principle according 
to which history is divided up by year-weeks (t. e. 
periods of 7 years) and Jubilees (i. e. periods of 
7x7 years) is recognized (cf. i. 26 f.). Accordingly, 
he gives a history from Creation to Moses, in which 
the sequence of events is recorded and dated exactly 

1 Op. cit.,\p\ xafii,. y 

1 This is obscured by such titles as " the little Genesis," 
" the Apocalypse of Moses," etc. 


by jubilee-periods, or portions of such. This leads 
up to a final section in which the law respecting 
jubilees and sabbatical years is solemnly enjoined. 
The writer's aim seems to have been nothing less than 
a reformation of the Jewish. Calendar. The pre- 
vailing system has led to the nation ," forgetting " 
new moons, festivals, and sabbaths '(and ( ?) jubilees) ; * 
in other words, it has produced grave irregularities 
in the observance of matters which were of divine 

A cardinal feature of the writer's system is the 
jubilee-period, which consists of 7 X 7 (1. e. 49) years. 
Here we are confronted with a difficulty. The 
passage in Lev. (xxv. 8-14) which ordains the observ- 
ance of the jubilee-year expressly identifies this, in 
the present form of the text, with the fiftieth year 
(Lev. xxv. 10 and n). But it is incredible that the 
author of our Book would deliberately have violated 
the express injunctions of the Pentateuch on such a 
matter, and we are driven to conclude that he had 
a text before him in which the word " fiftieth " was 
absent. 2 The wording of verses 8 and 9 is ambiguous, 
and allows of the explanation that the jubilee-year was 
the forty-ninth and not the fiftieth. It is quite possible 
that in verses 10 and n " fiftieth " has been addeo) to 
the text, in the interests of the rival explanation that 
ultimately prevailed, for, as has been pointed out 
already, our Book presupposes a text of the Penta- 
teuch that is independent of and earlier than M.T. 
This explanation suffers from the difficulty that the 
LXX- and other ancient versions (including the 
Samaritan text) support the currently received 
reading. But it is not improbable that on sucji a 
matter the influence of orthodox views may have 
operated to bring their text of the verses into harmony 
with the currently accepted theory. 8 

1 vi. 34; cf. i. 10. 

1 So Leszvnsky, Die Sadduzaer, pp. 156 ff. 

• It should be noted that the Talmud (T.B., Ned , 61a) 
refers to the view (held by R. Jehuda) that the jubilee-period 
was forty-nine years. 


But more revolutionary is the writer's advocacy 
of a solar calendar. In ii. 9 he says, " God appointed 
the sun to be a great sign upon the earth for days 
and for sabbaths, and for feasts and for years and for 
jubilees and for all seasons of the years." In Gen. i. 
14 this function is assigned to the sun and the moon ; 
but in our Book the moon is deliberately excluded. 
The writer objected fiercely to the traditional calendar 
which was based upon the changes of the moon, and 
was adjusted to the solar year by means of inter- 
calation. How can his apparent violation of the 
express wording of Scripture be explained? His 
answer would probably have been that the solar 
year of 364 days (cf. vi. 32) was actually the system 
implied in the Pentateuch. It has been pointed out 
by Bacon 1 that in the P sections of the Flood- 
narrative in Genesis a year of 364 days is pre-supposed. 
It is said that the Flood began on the 17th day of the 
second month, and ended on the 27th day of the 
second month the following year, i. e. reckoning by the 
ordinary lunar months, 12 months (= 12 x 20,£ 
days) or 354 days + 10 days (to make up the solar 
year), or 364 days in all, this completing the one whole 
year which, according to the Babylonian source, was 
the length of the Flood's duration. Thus the author 
of Jubilees had a dogmatic basis within the text of 
the Pentateuch itself for his view that the true year 
was a solar one of 364 days. He may very well have 
believed that whatever may be the exact significance 
of Gen. i. 14, it could not override this fact. It is 
interesting to notice that this tradition of a solar 
year of 364 days should be implicit in the P sections 
of Genesis. There are strong reasons for believing 
that the author of Jubilees was a priest, and, as such, 
may have been acquainted in some special way with 
this priestly tradition. There are, however, difficulties 
in connexion with the reckoning of such a solar 
year. It is obvious that a year of 12 months, each 

1 In Hebraxca, vol. viii. (1891-2), cited by Charles on 
vi. 32. 


of which contains 30 days, will only yield a total cf 
360 days. It has been supposed that our author 
overcame this difficulty by inserting one intercalary 
day at the beginning of each quarter. Thus each 
three months would contain 31 -f 30 -f 30 (= 91) 
days. But this solution will not harmonjze with the 
date assigned by our author to the Feast of Weeks, 
which is the " middle " of the third month (xvi. 13). 
Scholars are agreed that the 15th of Sivan is meant. 
Now the Feast of Weeks was to be celebrated on the 
fiftieth day, counting from the "morrow " after the 
Sabbath of Passover (Lev. xxiii. 15 f.). The Phari- 
sees, as is well known, interpreted " Sabbath " here 
to be the first day of the Feast (Nisan 15th), whatever 
the day of the week on Which it fell, and reckoned 
from Nisan 16th, which would bring the Feast of 
Weeks to Sivan 6th. Another view, with which our 
Book agrees, interpreted '* sabbath " as = M week " 
(as in fact it has this meaning throughout the rest of 
the verse). Then render : And ye shall count unto 
you from ,the morrow after the (festival) week, from the 
day that ye bring the wave-sheaf, seven complete weeks 
shall there be, until the morrow after the seventh week 
ye shall number fifty days : the festival-week would be 
Nisan 15-21, and its " morrow " Nisan 22; reckon- 
ing 28 days to the month, this would leave 6 days in 
Nisan -f- 28 days in Iyar -f- 15 in Sivan = 49 -|- 
Nisan 22 = 50 days. This seems to have been the 
reckoning of our author. Moreover, since the year 
he advocates contains 364 days, the festivals would 
always fall upon the same day of the week, and as 
Nisan 1st the first day of Creation fell, according to 
his scheme, on the first day of the week, i. e. Sunday, 
it must always fall on that day ; thus Nisan 14th and 
21st would always fall on a Sabbath, while Nisan 22nd 
and Sivan 15th would always fall on a Sunday. To 
make the Feast of Weeks fall on the 1st day of the 
week was a Sadducean practice, and one that it is 
inconceivable that any Pharisee can ever have 
sanctioned or tolerated. It will be noticed, however, 


that the view of our author, according to which the 
Feast of Weeks falls on Sivan 15th, implies a reckoning 
of 28 days to the months Nisan and Iyar. How is 
this to be reconciled with a solar year of 12 months? 
Eppstein supposes that our author used two reckon- 
ings, one for the civil year of 12 months, 8 of 30, 
and 4 of 31 days, and an ecclesiastical year of 13 
months each containing 28 days. But it is difficult 
to believe that the writer used two systems side by 
side. A better solution would be that he added a 
week to every third month, which would make each 
3 months consist of 28 -f- 28 -f- 35 days (total 91 
days), or 4 + 4 + 5 weeks. It is evident that his 
calendar-system is based upon the number 7 ; thus 
each month consists of 4 X 7 (or 5 X 7) days, while 
the year consists of 52 X 7 days, the year-week of 
7 years, and the jubilee of 7 X 7 years. On this 
reckoning the Feast of Weeks would still fall on the 
15th of Sivan, but the 15th would not strictly be the 
" middle " of that month, which, ex hypothesi, consisted 
of 35 days. It might, however, be used loosely for 
such a date. Perhaps, too, the author desired to 
avoid specifying more particularly this date, because 
current Sadducean practice (based upon a different 
length of days assigned to the months) wouid not 
quite harmonize with it. 1 With regard to the Passover, 
it is noticeable that our author interprets the phrase 
" between the two evenings " (at which time the 
Passover lamb was to be slain, cf. Exod. xii. 6; 
Lev. xxiii. 5) to mean the third part of the day 
(xlix, 10) ; i. e. assuming the day to contain 12 hours, 
we may fix the third part as from 2 to 6 p.m. This, 
again, contradicts Pharisaic practice. Notable, too, 
is the mention of wine in connexion with the Pass- 
over : All Israel [i. e. in Egypt] was eating the flesh 

1 Thu9 the Abyssinian Jews (Falashas), maintaining old 
practice, reckon the 50 days from Nisan 22, as our author 
* does, but fix Sivan 12 as the date for the Feast of Weeks, as 
they use al|terna;te months of 30 and 29 days. It should be 
noted that the author of 1 Enoch lxxii -lxxxii. also advocates 
a year of 364 days. 


of the paschal lamb and drinking the wine (xlix. 6). 
Now this was a Pharisaic custom in later times, and 
has no basis, apparently, in the canonical account in 
Exodus. In view, however, of the fact that our 
author usually follows the prescriptions of Scripture 
with scrupulous care, the question arises^whether he 
did not, in fact, derive this from the Pentateuch. 
Leszynsky suggests * that the word rendered " bitter 
herbs " in Exod. xii. 8 (" with bitter herbs shall 
they eat it ") was interpreted by our author to mean 
" wine " — the word simply means " bitter," or " what 
is poisonous," and a cognate form is used in connexion 
with wine in Deut. xxxii. 32. It is certainly curious 
that our author makes no mention of " bitter herbs " 
in connexion with the Egyptian Passover. 

The Feast of Tabernacles, too, as described in our 
Book (xvi. 10-31), has certain peculiar features. 
In particular, the specifically Pharisaic custom of 
pouring water on the altar a at the Feast is not men- 
tioned or recognized. Now as early as the time of 
Alexander Jannaeus (102-76 B.C.) the Pharisees 
tried to enforce the adoption of this custom upon the 
Sadducean priest-king, who, to show his contempt, 
allowed the water, which should have been poured 
solemnly on the altar, to run over his feet. The 
protest that ensued was followed later by a massacre 
of Pharisees. It is difficult to believe that our author, 
a few years earlier, if he was himself a Pharisee, could 
have been ignorant of this custom, which was based 
upon old popular tradition. His silence concerning 
it is much more probably deliberate. The custom 
was objectionable, from the Sadducean standpoint, 
because it had no basis in the written Law. The 
custom of wearing wreaths upon the head which is 
here prescribed (xvi. 30) is also unknown to tradition ; 
nor has it, apparently, any Scriptural basis, unless it 
was inferred as an act of rejoicing, from the words 
" and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven 
days " (Lev. xxiii. 40), taken in conjunction with the 

1 Op. cit., pp. 207 ff. • Cf. R.W.S.*, p. 401 f. 


» ' ' ■ 
command (in tlie preceding clause) to take " branches 
of palm trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows 
of the brook." Wearing a wreath of palm-leaves 
may have been regarded as one of the ways in which 
this command was to be fulfilled. 

Even more striking are the sections which give 
directions about the observance of the Sabbath 
(1. 1-13; cf. ii. 29-30). These directions are very 
severe. The following actions are prohibited on the 
Sabbath under penalty of death : travelling by land 
or sea, buying or selling, drawing water, carrying 
burdens out of the house, killing or striking, snaring 
beasts, birds or fish, fasting or making war, marital 
intercourse. The last prescription is in direct opposi- 
tion to Pharisaic practice, as is also the severe penalty 
imposed for non-observance of the various prescrip- 
tions. It is interesting to notice that these agree 
with the practice still maintained by the Falashas, 
Samaritans, and Karaite Jews. Probably this rigid 
view of sabbath-observance was cherished in specially 
pious priestly circles at the time when our author 
wrote. In this connexion it may be noted that our 
Book, in its interpretation of the law about the fruit 
of newly-planted trees given in Lev. xix. 23-24, 
agrees with the view of the Samaritans and Karaite 
Jews in directing that the first fruits of the fruit of 
the fourth year should be offered on the altar, and 
what remained given to the priests. According to 
Pharisaic practice what remained was to be eaten 
by the owners within the walls of Jerusalem. 

Another point in which Jubilees upholds a view 
which is certainly not Pharisaic is on the question 
of the law of retribution, the so-called lex talionis. 
It is well known that while the Sadducees insisted on 
the strict letter of the Law, " an eye for an eye, and 
a tooth for a tooth," the Pharisees strove to mitigate 
its harshness by the substitution (except in the case 
of murder J of compensating money -payments. 
Moreover, 1 tneMish'na directs that where the death- 
penalty is inflicted it is to be carried out by the 


sword (cf. Sanhedrin ix. I : " These are to be be- 
headed "). Qur Book, however, seems to wage a 
polemic against such views in no uncertain language : 

Ta/te no gifts for the blood of man} lest it be shed with 
impunity, 'without judgement ; for it is the blood that 
is shed that causes the earth to sin, and the tarth cannot 
be cleansed from the blood of man save by the blood of 
him who shed it. A nd take no present or gift for the 
Uood of man ; blood for blood (xxi. 19 f.). 

In iv. 31 f the circumstances of Cain's death are 
described : his house fell upon him and he died in the 
midst of his house ; for with a stone he had killed A bet, 
and by a stone was he killed in righteous judgement. 
For this reason it was ordained on the heavenly tables : 
" With the instrument with which a man kills his 
neighbour, with the same shall he be killed ; after the 
manner that he wounded him, in like manner shall, they 
deal with him." 

It is true that a school of Pharisees (the School of 
Shammai) still, to some extent, upheld, in theory at 
any rate, the severer and older view. But this does 
not alter the fact that it was a distinctive tenet of the 
Sadducees; and it is difficult to believe that any 
Pharisee can, at any time, have used such unqualified 
language as that employed in the extracts given above. 2 

At this point we may well ask what was the author's 
attitude towards the belief in a future life ? At the 
time when he wrote the doctrine of the resurrection 
of the body had become well established in certain 
Jewish circles. In the Biook of Daniel it had re- 
ceived classical expression. It was a cherished belief 
of the Pharisaic party. Now our Book does not in 
any way accept such a belief. The one passage in 
which the language employed might, at first sight, 
suggest a hint of such a belief is a sentence describing 
the happiness of the righteous in the age of felicity 
which is to dawn : 

1 This would be allowed in certain cases of homicide (not 
deliberate murder) by the Rabbinical Law. 
1 Cf. # however, xlviii, 14 note, 


And at that time the Lord will heal His servants, 
And they will rise up and see great peace, 
And drive out their adversaries (xxiii. 30). 
But here there is probably no reference to the idea 
of a resurrection. As Charles points out, the words 
11 shall rise up " have here " apparently no reference 
to the resurrection, and mean merely that when God 
heals His servants (cf. Rev. xxii. 2) they become 
strong." The clause in the preceding verse, all their 
days will be days of blessing and healing (cf . also i. 29) 
renders " this view the most probable." On the 
other hand, the opening words of xxiii. 31 : 
And their bones will rest in the earth, 
And their spirits will have much joy, 
though they are susceptible of another interpretation, 
may point to a belief that the righteous dead are 
destined to enjoy a blessed immortality. But it is 
to be noticed that no emphasis is laid on the idea ; 
and in any case no countenance is given to the 
doctrine of resurrection. This attitude accords with 
the Sadducean position. What the Sadducees main- 
tained was that the resurrection doctrine could not 
be proved from the Pentateuch. They did not assert 
that the personality was annihilated at death, or 
deny the doctrine of immortality — indeed, it is by 
no means impossible that some sections of the 
Sadducean party accepted this doctrine ; but in 
general their position towards this question — apart 
From that of the bodily resurrection — was cautious 
and reserved. And this certainly seems to be the 
attitude of our author. It should be noted that 
Sheol is represented — somewhat vaguely and in 
poetical passages — as a place of punishment for the 
wicked (vii. 29; xxii. 22; xxiv. 31). This looks like 
the converse of the idea that the righteous dead are 
destined to enjoy a blessed immortality. In this 
connexion a word may be said about the angelology 
and demonology of our Book. These are in a fairly 
advanced stage, and imply much the same develop- 
ment as is to be seen in 1 Enoch and the Testaments of 


the XII Patriarchs. There are three classes of 
angels, two of a superior order, the angels of the 
presence, and the angels of sanctiftcation (cf. ii. 2, 
18), and, besides these, a numerous inferior order who 
presided over natural phenomena (ii. 2). It is note- 
worthy that the two superior orders are Represented 
as observing the Sabbath, and as fulfilling the pre- 
scriptions of the Law regarding circumcision, etc. ; 
they even observe in heaven the great festivals, such 
as the Feast of Weeks (vi. 18). x Various activities 
are assigned to the angels in connexion with mankind 
throughout our Book? 

Over against the angelic orders there stands a well- 
organized demonic kingdom, presided over by " the 
prince of the Mast&ma ' (cf. xvii. 16; xlviii. 2; xviii. 
9, 12, etc.). 3 Among the Satanic beings that appear 
in our Book is Beliar (i. 20). 

What is the attitude of our author towards the 
Messianic Hope? The hope for the coming of the 
Messianic King who should spring from the old Royal 
House of David was always cherished among the masses 
of the people, and in times of unusual stress was apt 
to flame up in vivid expression. The Pharisees, who 
themselves sprang from the ranks of the people, were 
naturally influenced bv this tradition, and gave literary 
expression to it in the Psalms of Solomon (70-40 B.C. ?). 
But at the time when our author wrote the desire for a 
Messianic King of the House of David was probably 
only latent. A period of national prosperity came in 
during the reign of John Hyrcanus, and the people 
generally were well content. It is not to be supposed, 
however, that the popular hope had completely died 
away. It was merely quiescent. On the other hand, 

1 Besides the above there were the seventy angelic patrons 
of the nations (xv. 31 and note) and the guardian angels of 
individuals (xxxv. 17). 

* For details see Charles, op. cit., p. lvii f. 

• This is the light form of the expression (not " prince 
Mastema ") : "MastSma" in derivation and meanings 
"Sat^n" (cf, x, 8pote), 


there was a party, which no doubt had its seat in 
the priesthood, and may represent the old Sadducean 
party, that claimed for the priesthood not only 
sacerdotal but also ruling functions: Levi's descend- 
ants are not only to be priests, but also the civil 
rulers of the nation, and this view receives expression 
in our Book (cf. xxxi. 15). Now it is well known 
that the Pharisees objected to the double office being 
exercised by one person, and when Alexander Jan- 
naeus assumed the title of " king " this feeling broke 
out into open hostility. At a somewhat later time 
a Pharisaic author in the Psalms of Solomon, looking 
back upon the terrible events that followed the break- 
up of the Hasmonean dynasty, evidently regards 
the bloody chastisement which the Jews had to endure 
at that time from the hands of the Romans as the 
punishment inflicted on the people for having 
acquiesced in the usurpation by the Hasmoneans 
of the royal dignity which had been reserved for the 
Messianic prince of the House of David. Especially 
significant in this connexion is the promise recounted 
in our Book of Levi (xxxii. 1) : And he abode that night 
at Bethel, and Levi dreamed that they had ordained and 
made him the Priest of the Most High God, him and 
his sons for ever. This, originally the title of the 
priest-king Melchizedek (Gen. xiv. 18), was revived 
by the Maccabean princely High Priests, and there is 
some evidence that in certain ( ? Sadducean) quarters 
it was expected that the Messiah would spring from 
the tribe of Levi, and even from the priestly ruling 
Maccabean house. 1 The one possible reference to 
the hope of a Messiah from Judah in our Book occurs 
in the blessing of Judah, xxxi. 18 : 

A prince shalt thou be, thou and one of thy sons over 
the sons of facob ; 

Here Judah is addressed, and is singled out for 
special honour by the side of Levi. This was only 

1 Cf. Tesf^Levi, xviii. ; Reuben, vi. ; Ps. ex. 4 ( ? addressed 
to Simon Maccabaeus). The Pharisees objected to the use 
pf this title. 


natural, as the Jews derived their name from the 
tribe of Judah, who may be regarded as a sort of 
symbol of the nation generally. But who is meant 
by " one of thy sons ' ? Some would see in this a 
reference to the expected Messiah, but if this be so it 
is very vague. It is much more likely that the 
historic David is' meant. The priestly 'author is 
significantly silent about a Davidic Messiah. Any 
Messiah he may have hoped for would, according to 
his view, spring from the tribe of Levi. He does not 
accept the view that the Davidic dynasty is of 
eternal duration, even ideally. May he not, too, 
have been thinking, in the address to Judah, of Judas 
Maccabaeus ? x Judas by his warlike exploits had 
shed a new glory on the name " Judah." But Judas 
himself belonged to the priestly family of the Has- 
moneans, and it would be easy for our author to see 
in him the embodiment of the glories of the tribe of 
Judah, without diminishing the claims of the priestly 
tribe to civil as well as sacerdotal primacy. 

In the same context (xxxi. 20) two lines occur in 
the address to Judah which run as follows : 

And when thou sittest on the throne of the honour of 
thy righteousness, 

There will be great peace for all the seed of the sons 
of the beloved. 
The exact meaning of these words is not clear. They 
can hardly refer to the expected Messiah from 
David's House, because in that case the context 
would demand the use of the third person, whereas 
the second person is employed and Judah is being 
addressed. Leszynsky suggests that here in the 
Hebrew original there may be an allusion to the 
Sadducees, suggested by a word-play in the Hebrew 
word for " righteousness " (sedek). But even so 
the sentence is not clear. Is our author still thinking 
of Judas Maccabaeus? If so, he may mean "and 
when thou (Judas), in the person of thy High-Priestly 
successors, sitte&t as Priest-king on thy Sadducean 

1 So Leszynsky. 


throne of honour. It must be admitted that this 
is not very convincing, and the sentence remains 
obscure and uncertain in meaning. But of the high 
position assigned by our author to the tribe of Levi 
there can be no doubt. The lofty position of High- 
Priest and civil ruler is assigned to Levi as a reward 
for the destruction of Shechem (cf. xxx. 17-23 ; 
xxxii. 1-3). As Kohler says : " The Levites are 
represented as the keepers of the sacred books and 
of the secret lore entrusted to them by the saints 
from of yore (xlv. ify cf. x. 14). This indicates that 
the priests and Levites still included among them- 
selves, as in the days of the author of the Book of 
Chronicles, the men of learning, the masters of the 
schools, and that these positions were not filled by 
men from among the people, as was the case in the 
time of Shammai and Hillel." Other features of our 
Book entirely accord with this. For instance, the 
glorification of the Patriarchs in which our author 
loves to indulge is the development of a tendency 
already marked in the Priestly Sections of the 
Hexateuch. 1 In Jubilees they become saints of 
the Law. Incidents which might reflect discredit 
upon them (such as that described in Gen. xii. 11-13) 
are omitted. Abram is represented as having known 
the true God from his youth (xi. 16-17; xii. iff.). 
Jacob is " a model of filial affection and obedience." 
A noticeable feature is also the insistence upon the 
unique position of Israel among the nations, and its 
rigid separation from the latter. Circumcision is a 
sign of Israel's elect position (xv. 26) and a privilege 
which they enjoy in common with the two chief 
orders of angels (xv. 27). This is also true of the 
Sabbath, which the same angelic orders observe with 
Israel. It is needless to add that our author glorifies 
the Law, which is of heavenly origin and everlasting 
validity. This is his estimate of the Law in its narrow 
sense, i. e. the Pentateuch. It is by this criterion 
that he measures everything. It is true that Jubilees 

1 See Carpenter, Hexateuch, i. 123 (cited by Charles). 


contains incidents and amplifications which are not 
to be found in the written Torah. But the author 
is careful to base everything that is of legal obliga- 
tion upon the letter of the Law itself. Anything 
that he allows himself to introduce by way of amplifi- 
cation or addition serves merely to enhance the 
obligation of the written precept: ' ' 

Finally, his eschatology is essentially that of one 
who is primarily interested in the Law. In xxiii. 
12-31, he introduces an apocalyptic passage which 
gives a history of the Maccabean times from the 
persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes to the Messianic 
Kingdom, the advent of which is just at hand. A 
dark picture is drawn of the inroads of Hellenism, 
and of its disintegrating effects upon the observance 
of the Law and the covenant (xxiii. 16-20) ; the 
warlike efforts of the Maccabees to reclaim the 
Hellenizers to Judaism are then described (xxiii. 
20-22), and the cry of the nation for deliverance 
from its calamities (xxiii. 23-25). Then follows a 
passage (xxiii. 26-32) in which, as a consequence of 
Israel s renewed study of the Law, a happier period 
follows. The Messianic Kingdom is to be " brought 
about gradually by the progressive spiritual develop- 
ment of man and a corresponding transformation 
of nature." Its members are " to attain to the full 
limit of 1000 years in happiness and peace." Prof. 
Charles * adds : " The writer of Jubilees, we can 
hardly doubt, thought that the era of the Messianic 
Kingdom had already set in." 

The important point to notice about this picture is 
that the dawn of the happier Age is brought about 
by renewed study and observance of the Law : 

And in those days the children will begin to study 
the laws, 

And to seek the commandments, 

And to return to the path of righteousness (xxiii. 26). 

The result is a gradual transformation of men and 
their environment. There is no catastrophe. It is 
1 Op. cit., p. bcxxvii, 


doubtful whether the author clearly envisages a final 
judgement, though there may be an allusion to such, 
in rather vague language., in xxiii. 30 f. The tone 
throughout is priestly, and it can hardly be doubted 
that the author was a priest. 

Authorship and Date 

According to Charles, the author was not only a 
priest but a Pharisee " of the straitest sect." We 
have already seen that many of the positions advo- 
cated in the Book are essentially un-Pharisaic in 
character. Such a fundamentally Pharisaic doctrine 
as the resurrection of the body is not accepted, and 
it is more than doubtful whether the author looked 
for the advent of a Davidic Messiah. Moreover, it 
is difficult to conceive any Pharisee at any time 
advocating the adoption of a solar calendar. Then, 
again, though there were, of course, Pharisaic priests 
in later times, when the influence of Pharisaism had 
become all-powerful, it would certainly be remarkable 
to find. in the second century B.C. so priestly a writer 
as our author a member of the Pharisaic party. 
For that party arose from the ranks of the people. 
It was essentially a lay movement, and it championed 
popular religious, as opposed to priestly, tradition. 
All this has been instinctively felt by the Jewish 
scholars 1 who have discussed the problems connected 
with the authorship and general character of our Book. 
By these scholars our Book has been variously as- 
cribed to Essene (Jellinek, 1855), Samaritan (Beer, 
1856-7), Hellenist (Frankel, 1856), and Jewish- 
Christian (Singer, 1898) authorship. None of these 
views is entirely satisfactory. More can be said for 
the view that the, author belonged to the party — if 
party it can be called — of the Hasidim (" Assideans " 
or " Hasideans ") who are referred to in 1 Maccabees. 2 

1 With the distinguished exception of Dr. K. Kohlcr (in 
JE, s.v. Jubilees), who accepts Charles's view, though he 
suggests that t!he book may reflect early Hasidaean practice. 

2 Cf . 1 Mace, vii 

xxx ir/. INDUCTION 

These " piolis " members of the Jewish community 
were devoted adherents 6f the Law, and banded 
themselves together to resist the Hellenizers even 
unto death. They must not be confounded with the 
Pharisees, who may, however, have been influenced 
by them. There is nothing to show that the earlier 
Hasidim accepted popular religious tradition which 
had no basis in the written Law. Indeed, the reverse 
is probable. We know that, in spite of their anti- 
Hellenism, they scrupled to oppose the legitimate 
High Priest, even when he was on the Greek side. 
On the other hand, it is doubtful 'whether they would 
have countenanced the claim that the priests should 
exercise civil rule, while, as we have seen, the author 
of Jubilees distinctly takes up this position, and 
appears to have been an admirer of the Maccabean 
Priest-Princes — at any rate, of John Hyrcanus l 
and Simon Maccabaeus. Still there is a certain 
affinity between our author and the Hasidim, and if 
he was not actually a " Hasid," he may very well 
have been in sympathy with members of that party 
in fundamental religious positions. Recently Leszyn- 
sky, 2 has maintained the thesis that Jubilees was 
written by a Sadducean author, and, it must be 
admitted, makes out a strong case. Unfortunately, 
scholars are not yet agreed as to the real character 
and position of the Sadducean party, but of recent 
years there has been a growing consensus of opinion 
that the party had a real religious basis. It was not, 
as it is sometimes represented to have been, a mere 
political party of worldly opportunists who used 
religious questions as a stick to beat the Pharisees, 
who represented true religion, while the real interests 

1 It is true that John Hyrcanus favoured the Pharisees, 
according to Josephus (Ant., xiii. 10, 5), who even speaks of 
him as their " disciple." But this probably means no more 
than that he adopted a conciliatory attitude towards them. 
He also had intimate friends among the Sadducees (Josephus, 
Ant., xiii. 10, 6). 

■ Die Sadduzdcr (1912), pp. 179-236. 



of their opponents were to safeguard their privileged 
position and wealth. If such books as Sirach are 
really, in any sense, Sadducean, and if we weigh the 
evidence of Josephus impartially, we may conclude 
that the real Sadducees represented the conservative 
tradition of the old scribal schools which grew up 
under priestly influence. The Sadducees stood for 
the written Law of Moses against the oral tradition, 
derived from popular religious elements, represented 
by the Pharisees. What could not be proved from 
the Law they refused to accept. Their essential 
objection to the new doctrine of the resurrection of 
the body was that it could not be proved from the 
Law. They stood for priestly privilege against the 
democratic tendencies of the Pharisees, who wished 
to bring in the laity as much as possible. It was 
natural that this party should be strong among the 
priests, and especially among families connected with 
the High Priesthood. The best members of it were, 
no doubt, pious devotees of the Law. This is not to 
say that worldly-minded members of the party did 
not exist. No doubt there were such, and some such 
men may have found it convenient to attach them- 
selves to the Sadducean party. There were also 
worldly and hypocritical adherents in the ranks of 
the Pharisees. But in neither case is it just to 
estimate the essential character of the party from 
such elements. The persistence of the Sadducean 
party for so long a time within Judaism suggests 
that it possessed elements of real vitality and vigour. 
No doubt, also, it was divided into sections — one such 
is known to us as the sect of the Brethusians. In 
view of its long continuance as an active party, and 
its significance in the history of Judaism, it must 
have stood for something more than mere negations. 
While it rejected the resurrection doctrine, the hope 
of a Davidic Messiah, and the Pharisaic oral tradition, 
it upheld the sole binding force of the written Torah, 
and emphasized priestly privilege. 

Judged by these criteria, our author may well have 


been a pious Sadducean priest. It is not necessary, 
of course, to suppose that all the positions upheld in 
our Book were commonly accepted by the Sadducean 
party. Our author had views of his own, particularly 
regarding the calendar — which at the time when he 
wrote seems to have been a burning subject of debate 
— which would not necessarily have commended 
themselves to the party generally. It is to be noted 
that the positions he upholds on other matters often 
agree with those of the Samaritans and Falashas and 
Karaite Jews, who are well-known to represent old 
Sadducean views on various points. 

On one point of detail the Ethiopic text of our Book 
does uphold a specifically Pharisaic view. In xvi. 
18, Israel is spoken of as destined to become a kingdom 
and priests and a holy . nation. This is an echo of 
Exod. xix. 6, but there the Hebrew text has a kingdom 
of priests (" And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of 
priests and an holy nation "). Now the alteration 
yielded by the text of our Book here reflects the 
Pharisaic exegesis of this passage; the same altera- 
tion appears also in Rev. v. 10 (cf. i. 6). The Pharisees 
were anxious to separate the kingdom from the 
priesthood, and expounded Exod. xix. 6 in this way, 
as the Jewish Targums attest. But the original text 
of our Book can hardly have been under any such 
influence. Such an exegesis would contradict the 
express claims made for the priesthood elsewhere in 
the Book. The Latin version, which has " a kingdom 
of priests " (as in the original Hebrew text in Exod. 
xix. 6), is no doubt right. Probably the Ethiopic 
scribe was influenced by the form of the text in 
Rev. v. io, and introduced it here. 

We may sum up by saying that the author was 
undoubtedly a pious priest, a devoted adherent of 
the Law, and an upholder of priestly tradition ; he 
was certainly not a Pharisee, but has affinities with 
the Hasidun or " pious " of early Maccabean times; 
not improbably he was a Sadducean priest. The 
exact date of the composition of Jubilees cannot be 


fixed with absolute certainty, but no doubt, as 
Charles has argued, it falls some time within the reigns 
of Simon Maccabseus or John Hyrcanus, the flourish- 
ing period of the Hasmonean rule. This, at any rate, 
may be inferred from the historical sketch embodied 
in the apocalyptic passage, xxiii. 12-31, and is rein- 
forced by a number of other considerations. The 
date to which the various phenomena point is some 
time in the last half of the second century B.C. 


The important edition of the Ethiopic text by 
Charles has already been referred to, as well as his 
English translation of the Book with Introduction 
and Notes (1902). This translation has also been 
reprinted (with an Introduction and Notes) in the 
Oxford Corpus (vol. ii. Pseudepigrapha, 1913) and 
is reproduced in the pages that follow. 

The most recent, and in many respects the most 
important, discussion of Jubilees is contained in 
Leszynsky's Die Sadduzder (Berlin, 1912), pp. 179- 
236. Leszynsky's arguments have been referred to 
fully above. Kohler's article in JE, vol. vii. 
(" Jubilees Book of ") is interesting and useful. 
Of earlier works the following are important : 

Jellinek, Ueber das Buck der Jubilden (1855) ; 

Beer, Das Buck der Jubilden und sein Verhdltniss zu 
den Midraschitn (Leipzig, 1856) ; also Noch ein 
Wort uber das Buck der Jubilden (1857) » 

Frankel in M onatsschrijt (1856) ; 

Singer, Das Buck der Jubilden oder die Leplogenesis 
(Stuhlweissenburg, 1898). 
There is a good discussion in Schurer GJV., iii. 
371-384, with full Bibliography. 


i Enoch = The Ethiopic Book of Enoch. 

2 Enoch = The Slavonic Book of Enoch. 

Ap. Bar. = The Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch. 

Pirke de R. Eliezer is cited according to the edition (finglioh 
tmnrlntion with iwtnr hy W i Q i ft QijLli1c)i, P.P ., -em4 
■4 \JI Bom M.A.) of G. Friedlander (London, 1916). 

MT = Masoretic text. 

Sam. = Samaritan version, and Hebrew text in Samaritan 
characters when both agree. 

Syr. = the Syriac version of the Old Testament. 

Vulg. = Vulgate. 

( ) Words or letters so enclosed are supplied by the 
editor from some other source. 

[ ] Words so enclosed are interpolated. 

t t Words so enclosed are corrupt. 

Charles's Jubilees = The Booh of Jubilees translated from the 
Ethiopic Text, by R. H. Charles, D.D. (London, 1902). 

JE — Jewish Encyclopaedia. 

RWS* = Religion and Worship of the Synagogue (1911). 



This is the history of the division of the days l of 
the law and of the testimony, of the events of the 
years, of 2 their (year) weeks, of their jubilees through- 
out all the years of the world, 3 as the Lord spake to 
Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the 
tables of the law and of the commandment, according 
to the voice of God as He said unto him, " Go up to 
the top of the Mount." 4 

God's Revelation tc Moses on Mount Sinai 

(i. 1-26 : cf. Ex. xxiv. 15-18). 

I. And it came to pass in the first year of the 
exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the 
third month, 6 on the sixteenth day of the month, 
that God spake to Moses-; saying : " Come up to Me 
on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone 
of the law and of the commandment, which I have 
written, that thou mayst teach them." 8 2. And 
Moses went up into the mount of God, and the glory 
of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud over- 
shadowed it six days. 3. And He called to Moses on 

1 The Prologue sums up the contents of the Book as at 
once a history and a chronological system based upon the 
number seven. 

■* i.e. according to (their year-weeks) : a year-week = seven 
years (cf. Lev. xxv. 8 f.). 

8 The writer apparently intended to write a history from 
Creation to the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom. 

4 Cf. ExbcT. xxiv. 12. * Cf. Exod. xix. 1. 

8 Cf. Exod. xxiv. 12. 



the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud, and 
the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a 
flaming fire on the top of the Mount. 4. And Moses 
was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and 
God taught him the earlier and the later history * of 
the division of all the days of the law, and of the 
testimony. 5. And He said : " Incline thine heart 
to every word which I shall speak to thee on this 
Mount, and write them 2 in a book in order that their 
generations may see how I have not forsaken them for 
all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing 
the covenant which I establish between Me and thee 
for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. 6. And 
thus it will come to pass when all these things come 
upon them, 3 that they will recognize that I am more 
righteous than they in all their judgments and in all 
their actions, and they will recognize that I have 
been truly with them. 7. And do thou write for 
thyself * all these words which I declare unto thee 
this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff 
neck, 5 before I bring them into the land of which I 
sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and 
to Jacob, saying *. " Unto your seed will I give a land 
flowing with milk and honey. 8. And they will eat 
and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, 
to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of 
their tribulation : " and this witness shall be heard for 
a witness against them. 6 9. For they will forget all 
My commandments, (even) all that I command them, 
and they will walk after the Gentiles, and after their 
uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their 
gods, and these will prove unto them an offence and 
a tribulation and an affliction and a snare. 7 10. And 

1 Cf. i. 26. According to the Jewish Midrash, also, God 
showed Moses " all the generations that should arise," as 
welPas " all the minutiae of the Law " {Shemoth rabb. xl. ; 
Mcgilla 19b). 

* Cf. Exod. xxxiv. 27. * Cf. Deut. xxx. 1. 

4 Cf. i. 27. • Cf. Deut. xxxi. 27. 

• Cf. Deut. xxxi. 20. 7 Cf. Exod. xxiii. 33. 


many will perish and they will be taken captive, 1 
and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because 
they have forsaken My ordinances and My com- 
mandments, and the festivals of My covenant, and 
My sabbaths, and My holy place 2 which I have hal- 
lowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, 3 
and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself 
in the midst of the land, that I should set My name 
upon it, and that it should dwell (there). II. And 
they * will make to themselves high places and groves 
and graven images, 5 and they will worship, each his 
own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will 
sacrifice their children to demons, 6 and to all the works 
of the error of their hearts. 12. And I will send 
witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, 
but they will not hear, 7 and will slay 8 the witnesses 
also, and they will persecute those who seek the law, 
and they will abrogate and change everything so as 
to work evil before My eyes. 13. And I shall hide 
My face from them, and I shall deliver them into the 
hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, 
and for devouring, 9 and I shall remove them from the 
midst of the land, and I shall scatter 10 them amongst 
the Gentiles. 14. And they will forget all My law 
and all My commandments and all My judgments, 
and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, 
and festivals, and jubilees, and ordinances. 15. And 
after this they will turn to Me u from amongst the 
Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul 
and with all their strength, and I shall gather them 
from amongst all the Gentiles, 12 and they will seek Me, 
so that I shall be found of them, when they seek Me 

1 N. Israel is referred to. 

• t. e. the Temple in Jerusalem. 

' The Tabernacle is apparently thought of as still in 
existence (in Jerusalem) during the time oi the monarchy. 
4 t. e. Judah. 5 Cf. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 3 fT. 

• Cf. 2 Chron. xxviii. 3, xxxiii. 6. 7 Cf . 2 Chron. xxiv. 19. 
8 Cf. Matt.,xxiii. 34. • Cf. 2 Kings xxi. 14. 

18 Cf. Deut. iv. 27, xxviii. 64. 

il Cf. Deut. iv. 30. ia Cf. Je'r. xxix. 14. 


with all their heart and with all their soul. 16. And 
I shall disclose to them abounding peace with right- 
eousness, and I shall tremove them the plant of 
uprightness!, 1 with all My heart and with all My 
soul, 2 and they will be for a blessing and not for a 
curse, 3 and they will be the head and not the tail. 4 
17. And I shall build My sanctuary 6 in tlieir midst, 
and I shall dwell with them, and I shall be their God 
and they will be My people 6 in truth and righteous- 
ness. 18. And I shall not forsake them nor fail 
them ; 7 for I am the Lord their God." 19. And 
Moses fell on his face and prayed and said, " Lord 
my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inherit- 
ance, 8 so that they should wander in the error of 
their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands 
of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule 
over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 20. 
Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, 
and create in them an upright spirit, 9 and let not the 
spirit of Beliar 10 rule over them to accuse them before 
Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of 
righteousness, so that they 'may perish from before 
Thy face. 21. But they are Thy people and Thy 
inheritance, which Thou hast delivered with Thy 
great power u from the hands of the Egyptians : 
create in them a clean heart and a holy spirit, 13 and 
let them not be ensnared in their sins from henceforth 
until eternity." 22. And the Lord said unto Moses : 
" I know their contrariness and their thoughts and 
their stiffneckedness, 13 and they will not be obedient 
till they confess their own sjn and the sin of their 

1 The obelized words are corrupt. Charles suggests 
reading " And I will plant them the plant of uprightness in 
the land." 

2 Cf. Jcr. xxxii. 41. a Cf. Zech. viii. 13. 

* Cf. Deut. xxviii. 13. * i. e. the second Temple. 

6 Cf. Lev. xxvi. 12 and often. 7 Cf. Deut. xxxi. 6. 

8 Cf. Deut. ix. 26. • Cf. Ps. li. 10. 

10 Beliar (Belial) is here, as in the Ascension of Isaiah (see 
Introduction to that work), a Satanic being, apparently " the 
prince of the devils." n Cf. Deut. ix. 29. 

ia Cf. Ps. li. 10 (and ver. 20 above). M Cf. Deut. xxxi. 27. 


fathers. 1 23. And after this they will turn to Me in 
all uprightness and with all (their) heart and with all 
(their) soul, and I shall circumcise the foreskin of 
their heart ■ and the foreskin of the heart of their 
seed, and I shall create in them a holy spirit, and I shall 
cleanse them so that they shall not turn away from 
Me from that day unto eternity. 24. And their souls 
will cleave to Me and to all My commandments, and 
they will fulfil My commandments, and I shall be 
their Father and they will be My children. 25. And 
they will all be called children of the living God, 3 and 
every angel and every spirit will know, yea, they will 
know that these are My children, and that I am their 
Father in uprightness and righteousness, and that I 
love them. 26. And do thou write down for thyself 
all these words 4 which I declare unto thee on this 
mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to 
pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and 
in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees 
unto eternity, until I descend and dwell with them 5 
throughout eternity." 

God commands the Angel to write (i. 27-29). 


27. And He said to the angel of the presence : 6 
"Write 7 for Moses from the beginning of creation 
till My sanctuary has been built among them for all 
eternity. 28. 8 And the Lord will appear to the eyes 

1 Cf. Lev. xxvi. 40. * Cf. Deut. x. 16, xxx. 6. 

• » Cf. Hos. i. 10. 

4 viz. those contained in our Book (the Book of Jubilees) 
as distinguished from the Book of the First Law (vi. 22 = the 
Pentateuch), which was written by the angel himself. 

• viz. in the perfect theocracy inaugurated by the Messianic 

• Cf. Isa. lxiii. 9; Test. Xll.Patr., Judah 23: probably 
Michael is meant. Note that the medium of communication 
is an angel, and cf. Gal. iii. 19 (" The Law . . . ordained 
through angels "). Later Judaism rejected this idea. 

7 f. e. not the Pentateuch, " but a history up to the Messianic 
Kingdom "'(Charles, in Oxford Corpus). 

8 Read this ver. after ver. 25. 


of all, 1 and all will know that I am the God of Israel 
and the Father of all the children of Jacob, 2 and King 
on Mount Zion * for all eternity. And Zion and 
Jerusalem will be holy." 29. And the angel of the 
presence who went before the camp of Israel 4 took 
the tables of the divisions of the years 6 — from the 
time of the creation — of the law and of the testimony 
of the weeks, of the jubilees, according to the indivi- 
dual years, according to all the number of the jubilees 
[according to the individual years], from the day of 
the [new] creation fwhenf the heavens a and the 
earth shall be renewed and all their creation according 
to the powers of the heaven, and according to all the 
creation of the earth, until the sanctuary of the Lord 
shall be made in Jerusalem 7 on Mount Zion, and all 
the luminaries be renewed for healing 8 and for peace 
and for blessing for all the elect of Israel, and that 
thus it may be from that day and unto all the days 
of the earth. 

The Angel dictates to Moses the Primaeval 
History : the Creation of the World and 
Institution of the Sabbath (ii. 1-33 ; cf. Gen. 
i-ii. 3). 

II. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses 
according to the word of the Lord, saying : Write the 
complete history of the creation, how in six days the 
Lord God finished all His works and all that He 
created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and 
hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign 

1 Cf. Rev. i. 7 (in the final theophany). 
1 Cf. i. 24; Jer. xxxi. 1. 

• Cf. Isa. xxiv. 23. 
4 Cf. Exod. xiv. 19. 

• From these the angel dictates to Moses (who writes) the 
Book of Jubilees. 

• Text corrupt. Read " from the day of creation, till the 

7 i. e. in th« Messianic Kingdom. 

• Cf. Rev. xxii. 2. 


for all His works. 2. 1 for on the first day He created 
the heavens which are above and the earth and the 
waters and all the spirits which serve before Him — 
the angels 2 of the presence, and the angels of sanctifi- 
cation, 3 and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the 
angels] of the spirit of the winds,* and the angels of 
the spirit of the clouds, and of darkness, and of snow 
and of hail and of hoar frost, 5 and the angels of the 
voices 8 and of the thunder and of the lightning, 7 and 
the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of 
winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer, 8 
and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in 
the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses 
and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, 
dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the know- 
ledge of His h,eart. 3. And thereupon we saw His 
works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on 
account of all His works ; for seven great works did 
He create on the first day. a, And on the second 

* 2-3 record the creations of the first day, seven in number, 
viz. heaven, earth, the waters, spirits, the abysses, darkness, 
light. According to Pir^e de R. FMezer hi., " eight things 
were created on the first day: namely, heaven, earth, the 
light, darkness, Tohu (chaos), Bohu (void), wind (or spirit), 
water." Perhaps Tohu and Bohu here = abysses. 

* According to our Book the angels were created on the 
first day, and this probably represents the view of earlier 
Judaism. This was opposed by later Judaism, which ob- 
jected to the idea that angels assisted in the work of creation 
on the days following the first. Pxrhe de R. Eliezer placed 
the creation of angels in the se cond 'day ; some Rabbis on 
the fifth (cf. Gen. rabb. i. 5). 

a Cf. ii. 18, xv. 27, xxxi. 14. These are the two chief 
orders of angels. The " angels of sanctification " sing 
praises to God. 

, * The various classes of angels that follow constitute the 
third or lowest order. They preside over the elements and 
natural phenomena; cf. 1 Enoch lx. 12-21, Ixxv., lxxx. ; 
2 Enoch xix. 1-4. For the " angels of the winds," cf. Rev. 
vii. if.; 1 Enoch xviii. 1-5, xxxiv.-xxxvi., Ixxvi. 

* Cf. t Enoch lx. 17-18. 

* Cf. Rev. iv. 5, xi. 19, xvi. 18. 

7 Cf. 1 Enoch lx. 13-15. 

8 Cf. 1 Enoch lxxxii. 13-20. 


day 1 He created the firmament in the midst of the 
waters, and the waters were divided on that day — 
half of them went up above and half of them went 
down * below the firmament (that was) in the midst 
over the* face of the whole earth. And this was the 
only work (God) created on the second day. 5. And 
on the third day a He commanded the waters to pass 
from off the face of the whole earth into one place, 
and the dry land to appear. 6. And the waters did 
so as He commanded them, and they retired from 
qff the face of the earth into one place outside of this 
firmament, and the dry land appeared. 7. And on 
that day He created for them all the seas according 
to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, 
and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains 
and on all the earth, and all the lakes, and all the dew 
of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all 
sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees 
of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and 
all (plants after their kind). These four great works 
God created on the third day. 8. And on the fourth 
day 3 He created the sun and the moon and the stars, 
and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give 
light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and 
the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 
9. And God appointed the sun 4 to be a great sign on 
the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months 
and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years 
and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 10. 
And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for 

1 Cf. Gen. i. 6-7; 2 Enoch xxvi.-xxvii. According to 
Ptrke de R. Eliezcr iv. the following were created on the 
second day : the firmament, angels, fire for flesh and blood, 
and the fire of Gehinnom. 

2 Cf. Gen. i. 9-13 (dry land, seas, herbage, fruit trees = 3 
works). Our Book adds a fourth, the Garden of Eden (so 
also the Midrash Bereshith rabb. xv. ; 2 Enoch xxx. 1). 
Another view was that Paradise ( ? the Heavenly Paradise) 
was created before the world; cf. 4 Ezra iii. 6 (note). 

9 Cf. Gen. i. 14-19; 2 Enoch xxx. 2-6. 
4 Note the intentional omission of the moon. The writer 
objected to a calendar based upon the changes of the mooni 


prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot 
and grow on the earth. These three kinds He made 
on the fourth day. 11. And on the fifth day l He 
created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, 
for these were the first things of flesh that were created 
by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in 
the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and 
all their kind. 12. And the sun rose above them to 
prosper (them), and above everything that was on 
the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, 
and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. These three 
kinds He created on the fifth day. 13. And on the 
sixth day * He created all the animals of the earth, and 
all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 
14. And after all this He created man, a man and a 
woman created He them, and gave him dominion 
over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and 
over everything that flies, and over beasts and over 
cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, 
and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave 
him dominion. And these four kinds He created 
on the sixth day. 15. And there were altogether two 
and twenty kinds. 8 16. And He finished all His work 
on the sixth 4 day — all that is in the heavens and on 
the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in 
the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 
17. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, 5 
that wen 'should work six days, but keep Sabbath on 
the seventh day from all work. 18. And all the 
angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctifi- 
cation, these two great classes — He hath bidden us 

1 Cf. Gen. i. 20-23; 2 Enoch xxx. 7; 4 Ezra vi. 47 ff. 
According to our Book the three works of the fifth day were 
the great sea-monsters, fish and birds; according to Pirke 
de R. Eliezer ix. birds, fish and locusts. 

* Cf. Gen. i. 24-28; 2 Enoch xxx. 8 f. 

3 Cf. ii. 23 (below). 

4 This is possibly the right reading of Gen. ii. 2a (so Sam. 
text, LXX, Syr.). It implies a severer view of Sabbath ob- 
servance. The Masoretic text has " seventh." 

6 Cf. Exod. xxxi. 13. 


to keep the Sabbath with Him l in heaven and on 
earth. 19. And He said unto us : " Behold, I will 
separate unto Myself 2 a people from among all the 
peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day, and. I 
will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will 
bless them ; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and 
do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, 
and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 
20. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob 8 from 
amongst all that I have seen, and have written him 
down as My firstborn son,* and have sanctified him 
unto Myself for ever and ever ; and I will teach them 
the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon 
from all work.' 21. And thus He created therein a 
sign 6 in accordance with which they should keep 
Sabbath with us 8 on the seventh day, to eat and to 
drink, and to bless Him 7 who hath created all things as 
He hath blessed and sanctified unto Himself a peculiar 
people 8 above all peoples, and that they should keep 
Sabbath together with us. 22. And He caused His 
commands to ascend as a sweet savour e acceptable 
before Him *all the days. ... 23. There (were) two 
and twenty heads of mankind from Adam to Jacob, 
and two and twenty kinds of work were made 10 until 

1 The two chief orders of angels observe the Sabbath with 
God (and Israel). The third order and the Gentiles are 
denied this privilege. 

' Cf. 1 Kings viir. 53. 

1 Cf. Isa. xli. 8 ( ' Jacob whom I have chosen "), xliv. 
1, 2. 

* Cf. Exod. iv. 22; Ps. lxxxix. 27. 

* For the Sabbath day as a sign between God and Israel, 
cf. Exod. xxxi. 13, 17; Ezek. xx. 12. 

a t. e. with God and the superior angels. 
7 The Sabbath is to be a delight. 

* Cf. Deut. vii. 6. • Cf. 2 Cor. ii. 15; Eph. v. 2. 

10 It is probable that at end of 22 above there is a lacuna 
in the text (indicated by the dotted line). Charles restores 
the mussing words as follows : As there were two and twenty 
letters, and two and twenty (sacred) books [viz. in the CHd 
Testament], and two and twenty heads of mankind from 
Adam to Jacob, so there were made two and twenty kinds oj 
work, etc. 

chap, ii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 45 

the seventh day ; this r is blessed and holy ; and the 
former 2 also is blessed and holy ; and this one serves 
with that one for sanctification and blessing. 24. 
And to this (Jacob and his seed) it was granted that 
they should always be the blessed and holy ones of 
the first testimony and law, even as He had sanctified 
and blessed the Sabbath day on the seventh day. 

25. He created heaven and earth and everything 
that He created in six days, and God made the seventh 
day holy, for all His worjcs ; therefore He commanded 
on its behalf that, whoever doth any work thereon 
shall die, 8 and that he who defileth it shall surely die. 

26. Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel 
to observe this day that they may keep it holy 4 and 
not do thereon any work, and not to defile it, as it is 
holier than all other days. 6 27. And whoever pro- 
faneth it shall surely die, and whoever doeth thereon 
any work shall surely die eternally, that the children 
of Israel may observe this day throughout their 
generations, and not be rooted out of the land ; for it 
is a holy day and a blessed day. 28. And every one 
who observeth it and keepeth Sabbath thereon from 
all his work, will be holy and blessed throughout 
all days like unto us. 29. Declare and say to the 
children of Israel the law of this day both that 
they should keep Sabbath thereon, and that they 
should not forsake it in the error of their hearts; 
(and) that it is not lawful to do any work there- 
on which is unseemly, to do thereon their own 
pleasure,* and that they should not prepare thereon 
anything to be eaten or drunk, 7 jand (that it is not 
lawful) to draw water, or bring in or take out thereon 
through their gates any burden, | 8 which they had not 

1 viz. the Sabbath. * viz. Jacob. 

• Cf. Exod. xxxi. 14, 15, xxxv. 2; Num. xv. 32 f. 
4 Cf. Exod. xx. 8. • Cf. ii. 30. 

• Cf. Isa. lviii. 13. 7 Deduced from Exod. xvi. 23, 25. 
8 The obelized words should either be omitted or read 

after their oyon pleasure above. For the law about " bringing 
in or taking out . . . any burden " on the Sabbath, cf. 
ii. 30, 1. 8; Jer. xviu 21 f . ; Neh. xiii. 19; John v. 10. 


prepared for themselves on the sixth day 1 in their 
dwellings.- 30. And they shall not bring in nor take 
out from house to house 2 on that day ; for that day 
is more holy and blessed than any jubilee day of the 
jubilees : on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens be- 
fore it was made known to any flesh to keep Sabbath 
thereon on the earth. 31. And the Creator of all 
things blessed it, 3 but He did not sanctify all peoples 
and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel 
alone : them alone He permitted to eat and drink 
and to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. 32. And 
the Creator of all things blessed this day which He 
had created fof a blessing and a sanctification and a 
glory above all days. 33. This law and testimony 
was given to the children of Israel as a law for ever 
unto their generations. 4 

ParadiBe and the Fall (iii. 1-35; cf. Gen. ii. 


III. And on the six days of the second week we 
brought, according to the word of God, unto Adam 
all the beasts, and all the cattle, and all the birds, and 
everything that moveth on the earth, and everything 
that moveth in the water, according to their kinds, and 
according to their types : the beasts on the first day; 
the cattle on the second day ; the birds on the third 
day ; and all that which moveth on the earth on the 
fourth day ; and that which moveth in the water on 
the fifth day. 2. And Adam named them all by their 
respective names, and as he called them, so was their 
name. 6 3. And on these five days Adam saw all 
these, male and female, according to every kind that 
was on the earth, but he was alone and found no help- 

This is in accordance . with Rabbinic law which forbids 
anything being eaten on the Sabbath unless it had been 
prepared beforehand for that purpose on a week-day. 

• This was relaxed later by the Rabbinic law of erub, which 
was based on Exod. xvi. 29. See JE. v. 203 f. fs.v. Erub). 

* i.e. Israel. * Cf. Exod. xxvii. 21, etc., for the phrase. 
■ » Cf. Gen. ii. 19. 

chap, in] . THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 47 

meet for him. 1 4. And the Lord said unto us : "It 
is not good that the man should be alone : let us make 
a helpmeet for him." f 5. And the Lord our God 
caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and he slept, 
and He took for the woman one rib from amongst 
his ribs, and this rib was the origin of the woman from 
amongst his ribs, and He built up the flesh in its stead, 
and built the woman. 6. And He awaked Adam out 
of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, 
and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said 
unto her : " This is now bone of my bones and flesh 
of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because 
she was taken from her husband. ' • 7. Therefore 
shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man 
leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his 
wife, and they shall be one flesh. 4 8. In the first week 
was Adam created, and the rib — his wife : in the 
second week He showed her unto him : and for this 
reason thej commandment was given to keep in their 
defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female 
twice seven days. 6 9. And after Adam had com- 
pleted forty days in the land where he had been 
created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to 
till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the 
eightieth day, and after this she entered into the 
Garden of Eden. 10. And for this reason the com- 
mandment is written on the heavenly tables 6 in 

1 Cf. Gen. ii. 20. 

■ Cf. Gen. ii. 18; LXX and Vulg. have pi. (" let us make" ), 
but MT Sam. Syr., M I will make." 

• Cf. Gen. ii. 21-23. According to the Talmud, Adam was 
originally (as first created, Gen. i. 27) hermaphroditic. 

4 Cf. Gen. ii. 24. 

• For these laws cf. Lev. xii. 2-5, according to which in 
the one case the mother was not to enter the sanctuary till 
the lapse of forty days, in the other eighty days. The reason 
for this is given in the following section (9), according to the 
author of Jubilees. This peculiar idea recurs elsewhere 
(Philo, Booh of Adam and Eve), but not in Rabbinic literature, 
except for some slight traces. See Charles, ad he. 

• Cf. 1 Enoch lxxxi. I, 2, xciii. 2, ciii. 2; the expression 
also occurs in Test. XII. Patriarchs. In our Book the heavenly 

48 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, in 

regard to her that giveth birth : " if she beareth a male, 
she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days accord- 
ing to the first week of days, and thirty and three 
days shall she remain in the blood of her purifying, 
and she shall not touch any hallowed thing, nor enter 
into the sanctuary, until she accomplished these days 
which (are enjoined) in the case of a male child. 
ii. But in the case of a female child she shall remain 
in her uncleanness two weeks of days, according to 
the first two weeks, and sixty-six days in the blood 
of her purification, and they will be in all eighty days." 
12. And when she had completed these eighty days 
we brought her into the Garden of Eden, for it is 
holier than all the earth besides, and every tree that 
is planted in it is holy. 13. Therefore, there was 
ordained regarding her who beareth a male or a female 
child the statute of those days that she should touch 
no hallowed thing, nor enter into the sanctuary until 
these days for the male or female child are accom- 
plished. 14. This is the law and testimony which 
was written down for Israel, in order that they should 
observe (it) all the days. 15. And in the first week 
1 7 a.m. of the first jubilee, Adam and his wife were in the 
Garden of Eden for seven * years tilling and keeping it, 
and we gave him work and we instructed him to do 
everything that is suitable for tillage. 2 16. And he 
tilled (the garden), and was naked and knew it not, 
and was not ashamed, 8 and he protected the garden 
from the birds and beasts and cattle, and gathered 

tables are conceived of as the divine statute book of which 
the Mosaic Law is the earthly reproduction; but they also 
contain records of events and predictions. The underlying 
idea is predestinanan. 

1 According to Bet. rabba xviii., Sank. 386, Adam was 
only six hours in the Garden ; cf. Ptrke de R. Eliezer xviii. 
(Adam entered the garden at the seventh hour and was 
driven forth at 'twilight, i. e. the twelfth hour on Friday 
the eve of the Sabbath). 

* Agriculture is a divine institution. Here the instruction 
is given by <ange)s ; contrast Isa. xxviii. 26-29. See also 
4 Ezra vi. 42. Test. XII. Patr. Issaehar iii. 5. 

a Cf. Gen. ii. 25. 

chap, in] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 43 

its fruit, and ate, and put aside the residue for him- 
self and for his wife [and put aside that which was 
bein£ kept]. 1 17. 1 And after the completion of the 
seven years, which he had completed there, seven 
years exactly, and in the second month, on the seven- 
teenth day (of the month), the serpent came and 
approached the woman, and the serpent said to the 
woman, " Hath God commanded you, saying, Ye 
shall not eat of every tree of the garden ? " 18. And 
she said to it, " Of all the fruit of the trees of the 
garden God hath said unto us, Eat ; but of the fruit 
of the tree which is in the midst of the garden God 
hath said unto us, Ye shall not eat thereof, neither 
shall ye touch it, lest ye die." 19. And the serpent 
said unto the woman, " Ye shall not surely die: for 
God doth know that on the day ye shall eat thereof, 
your eyes will be opened, and ye will be as gods, and 
ye will know good and evil." 20. And the woman 
saw the tree that it was agreeable and pleasant to 
the eye, and that its fruit was good for food, and she 
took thereof and ate. 21. And when she had first 
covered her shame with fig-leaves, she gave thereof 
to Adam and he ate, and his eyes were opened, and 
he saw that he was naked. 22. And he took fig- 
leaves and sewed (them) together, and made an apron 
for himself, and covered his shame. 32. And God 
cursed the serpent, and was wroth with it for ever. 
. . . 8 24. And He was wroth with the woman, be- 
cause she hearkened to the voice of the serpent, and 
did eat; and He said unto her : 4 " I shall greatly 
multiply thy sorrow and thy pains : in sorrow thou 
shalt bring forth children, and thy return 6 shall be 
unto thy husband, and he will rule over thee." 25. 

1 The bracketed words are a dittograph. 

* For 17-22 cf. Gen. iii. 1-7. 

* Charles suspects a lacuna here. It may have contained 
a statement to the effect that the serpent's four feet, which 
it is supposed to have originally possessed, were cut off. 
Cf. Targ. Ps.-Jon. on Gen. iii. 14, and Josephus, Ant. i. 1, 4. 

4 Cf. Gen. iii. 16. 

1 So LXX and Syr. (rj inroarpatp-f) <tov), MT, " thy desire." 

50 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, in 

And to Adam also He said, " Because thou hast heark- 
ened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the 
tree of which I commanded thee that thou shouldst 
not eat thereof, cursed be the ground for thy sake : 
thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and 
thou shalt eat thy bread in the sweat of thy face, till 
thou returnest to the earth from whence thou wast 
taken ; for earth thou art, and unto earth shalt thou 
return/' 26. And He made for them coats of skin, 
and clothed them, and sent them forth from the 
Garden of Eden. 1 27. And on that day on which 
Adam went forth from the garden, he offered as a 
sweet savour an offering, frankincense, galbanum, and 
stacte, ana spices in Jhe morning with the rising of 
the sun from the day when he covered his shame. 
28. .AncT on that day was closed the mouth of all 
beasts, and of cattle, and of birds, and of whatever 
walketh, and of whatever moveth, so that they could 
no longer speak : 8 for they had all spoken one with 
another with one lip and with one tongue. 29. And 
He sent out of the Garden of Eden all flesh that was 
in the Garden of Eden, and all flesh was scattered 
according to its kinds, and according to its types unto 
the places which had been created for them. 30. And 
to Adam alone did He give (the wherewithal) to cover 
his shame, of all the beasts and cattle. 31. On this 
account, it is prescribed on the heavenly tables as 
touching all those who know the judgment of the law, 
that they should cover their shame, and should not 
uncover themselves as the Gentiles uncover them- 
8 a.m. selves. 4 32. And on the new moon of the fourth 
month, Adam and his wife went forth from the Garden 

1 Cf. Gen. ii. 17-19, 21, 24. 

* t. e. the incense-offering of Exod. xxx. 34. 

* For this belief cf. Josephus, Ant. i. 1, 4. The idea under- 
lying the text here is that up to this time both men and 
animals spoke Hebrew, which was the universal language 
till the building of the Tower of Babel. 

* A protest against the Greek custom of exposing the 
person in public athletic sports; cf. 1 Mace. i. 13 f. ; 2 Mace, 
iv. 9-14; Josephus, Ant. xii. 5, 1. 

chap, in] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 51 

of Eden, and they dwHt. in. f b* land of 'Elda, 1 in the 
land of their creaMon^, 33. And Adam called the 
name ol~h7s wife Eve. 34. And they had no son till 
the first jubilee, and after this he knew her. 35. Now 
he tilled the land as he had been instructed in the 
Garden of Eden.* 

Gain and Abel (iv. 1-12; cf. Gen. iv.). 

IV. And in the third week in the second jubilee she 
gave birth to Cain, and in the fourth she gave birth 
to Abel, and in the fifth she gave birth to h* r daughter 
Awan, 8 ±. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, 
Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice 
c of Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 3. 
And he slew him in the field : and his blood cried 
from^the ground to heaven, complaining because he 
had slain him. 4 4. And the Lord reproved Cain 
because of Abel, because he had slain him, and he 
made him a fugitive on the earth because of the blood 
of his brother, and he cursed him upon the earth. 5 

5. And on this account it is written on the heavenly 
tables, " Cursed is he who smiteth his neighbour 
treacherously, and let all who have seen and heard 
say, So be it ; and the man who hath seen and not 
declared (it), let him be accursed as the other." 6 

6. And for this reason we announce when we come 
before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed 
in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, 
and everywhere. 7. And Adam and his wife mourned 
for Abel four weeks of years, and in the fourth year 
of the fifth weelc they became joyful, and Adam knew 

1 Charles suggests that 'Elda may be a corruption of the 
Hebrew word meaning " nativity " (land of " nativity "). 

• Cf. iii. 15. 

'* i. e. " iniquity " (Heb. 'dwen). Another daughter, 
'Atdrd (= ? " well guarded "), was born later. Cain married 
'Awan and Seth 'Azura. There is great divergence as to 
these names in later writers. According to Pirhe de R. 
Eliezer, Cain's wife was his twin-sister (xxi.). 
4 Cf. Gen. iv. 4, 5, 8, 10. 

* Cf. Gen. iv. 11-12. • Cf Deut. xxvii. 24. 

f 52 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, iv 

his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he l called 
his name Seth ; for he said " God hath raised up a 
second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel ; 
for Cain slew him." 2 8. And in the sixth week he 

134-140 begat his daughter 'Azura. 9. And Cain took 'Awan 
AM - his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch* at 

190-196 the close of the fourth jubilee. And in the first year 
A M of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built 

197 a.m. on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its 
name after the name of his son Enoch. 10. And 
Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 4 

225-231 11. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee Seth 
a.m. took 'Azura his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth 

235 a.m. (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. 5 12. He • 
began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 

The Patriarchs from Adam to Noah (cf. Gen. 
v.) ; Life of Enoch ; Death of Adam and 
Gain (iv. 13-33). 

3°9-3i5 13. 7 And in the seventh jubilee in the third week 

AM - Enos took N6am his sister to be his wife, and she bare 

325 a.m. mm a son in {he third year of the fifth week, and he 

called his name Kenan. 14. And at the close of the 

386-392 eighth jubilee Kenan took Mual&leth 8 his sister to be 

AM - his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, 

395 a.m. in the first week in the third year of this week, and 

449-455 he called his name Mahalalel. 15. And in the second 

AM week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to 

wife Dinah, the daughter of Baraki'61 the daughter of 

his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third 

461 a.m. week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared ;• 

for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on 

1 So Sam.; but MT " she." In our Book it is generally 
the father who names the child. 

• Cf. Gen. iv. 25. f Cf. Gen. iv. 17. 

4 Pseudo-Fhilo, Bibl. Antiq., gives the names of these nine 
sons. . * Cf. Gen. iv. 26. 

• So LXX and Vulg. ; but MT " then it was begun (men 
began)." f For 13-14 cf. Gen. v. 9, 12. 

• A fern, form = " she who praises God." 

• Cf. Gen. v. 15. 

chap, iv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 53 

the earth, 1 those who are named the Watchers,* that 
they should instruct the children of men, 8 and that 
they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 
16. And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself 
a wife, and her name was Baraka, the daughter of 
Rasuial, a daughter of his father's brother, in the 
fourtn week of this jubilee, and she bare him a son 
in the fifth week, in the fourth year of the jubilee, 
and he called his name Enoch. 4 17. And he 6 was 
the first among men that are born on earth who learnt 
writing and.tcnpwleage and wicdom * and who wrote 
down the signs of heaven according to the order of 
their months in a book, 7 that men might know the 
seasons of the years according to the order of their 
separate months. 18. And he was the first to write a 
testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among 
the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks 
of the jubilees, and made known to them the days 
of the years, 8 and set in order the months and re- 

1 This last line looks like a quotation from 1 Enoch vi. 6 
(" who descended in the days of Jared "). Note the play in 
Hebrew on the name Jared {ydred) and " descended (Heb. 
yaridH). The myth of the descent of the angels was based 
on Gen. vi. 1-4, but was rejected by the Rabbis, who rendered 
" sons of God " (i. e. angels) " sons of the judges." 

1 This name is given to angels in Dan. iv. 13, 17, 23; in 
1 Enoch it is applied especially to the fallen angels (cf. 
1 Enoch i. 5, x. 9, 15 and often). 

• This statement is interesting. It describes what was 
probably the original commission by God to the angelic 
watchers, who, however, fell when they descended to the 
earth. According to 1 Enoch, Enoch acquired his super- 
natural knowledge from the instruction of angels. 

4 Cf. Gen. v. 18. 

• The passage that follows about Enoch (17-23) implies 
knowledge on the part of the author of Enochic writings. 
Charles infers that these were 1 Enoch vi.-xvi., xxiii.-xxxvi., 
and lxxii.-xc. 

• Cf. the phrase " Scribe of righteousness " applied to 
Enoch in 1 Enoch xii. 4, xv. 1. 

7 Probably a reference to 1 Enoch lxxii.-lrfxxii. (" Tho 
Book of the courses of the Heavenly Luminaries "). 

• There is 1 nothing in 1 or 2 Enoch about " jubilees," etc. 
This statement is probably due solely to the author of Jubilees, 
who wished to invest the institution with a spurious antiquity. 

54 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, iv 

counted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) 
known to him. 19. And what was and what will be 
he saw in a vision l of his sleep, as it will happen_to 
the children of men throughout ..their generations, 
until, t he day of judgment ;-. he a saw and understood 
everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the 
testimony on earth for all the children 'of men and 

582-588 for their generations. 20. And in the twelfth jubilee, 

am. i n the seventh week thereof, he to^ k_tq_hijnself__^, 

wife, and jierjiAmf. was EdniJ* t^E^ugEteLafJ^in^L 

587 a.m. the daughter of his fathers- brother, and in the sixth 
year inthis'week she bare him a son and he called his 
name Methuselah. 4 21. And he was moreover with 
the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they 
showed him everything which is on earth 5 and in the 
heavens, the rule of the sun, and he wrote down 
everything. 22. And he testified to the Watchers, 
who had sinned with the daughters of men ; for these 
had begun to unite themselves, so as to be defiled, 
with the daughters of men, and Enoch testified against 
(them) all. 23. And he was taken from amongst 
the children of men, and we conducted" him into the 
Garden of Eden 8 in majesty and honour, and behold 
there he wnteth down the condemnation and judgment 
of the world, and all the wickedness of the children 
of men. 7 24. And on account of it (God) brought the 
waters of the flood 8 upon all the land of Eden ; for 
there he was set as a sign aiRpTlial lie strontdtestify 
. against all the children of men, that he should recount 
all the deeds of the generations until the day of con- 

1 The reference is probably to the " Dream-Visions " 
(1 Enoch lxxxiii.-xc). 

2 i.e. Enoch. The writings of Enoch are mentioned 
elsewhere (1 Enoch, Test. XII. Patriarchs). 

• Edna in 1 Enoch lxxxv. 3. 
4 Cf. Gen. v. 21. 

6 1 Enoch xxiii.-xxxvi. 

• Cf. 1 Enoch lxx. 1-3. 

7 Cf. 1 Enoch xii. 3 f., xiv. 1. The title (" Scribe of the 
Knowledge of the Most High ") is conferred upon Ezra in 
4 Ezra xiv. 50 (Syriac text). 

• Cf. 2 Enoch xxxiv. 3. 

chap, iv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 55 

demnation. 1 25. And he burnt the incense of the 
sanctuary, (even) sweet SDices, 2 acceptable before the 
Lord on the Mount. 20. For the Lord hath four 
places^ on the earth, the Garden of Eden, and the 
Mo unt of the East. 4 a nd this mountain on which thou 
arFthis day, Mount Sinai, and M6unt Zion (which) 
will be -sanctified in the new creation for a sanctifica- 
tion of the earth ; through it will the earth be sanctified 
from all (its) guilt and its uncleanness throughout the 
generations of the world. 5 27. And in the fourteenth 
jubilee Methuselah took unto himself a wife, Edna 
the daughter of 'Azrial, the daughter of his father's 
brother, in the third week, in the first year of this 
week, and he begat a son and called his name Lamech. 6 
28. And in the fifteenth jubilee in the third week 
Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name was 
Be"t£n6s the daughter of Baraki'il, the daughter of his 
father's brother, and in this week she bare him a son 
and he called his name Noah, saying, " This one will 
Comfort me for my trouble and all my work, and for 
the ground which the Lord hath cursed." 7 29. And 
at the close 01 the nineteenth jubilee, in the seventh 
week in the sixth year thereof, Adam died, and all 
his sons buried him in the land of his creation, 8 and 
he was the first to be buried ■ in the earth. 30. And 
he lacked seventy years of one thousand years; for 
one thousand years are as one day in the testimony 

1 Cf. x. 17. ■ Cf. Exod. xxx. 7. 

• Three of these places are connected with critical events 
in the history of the world; Eden (with Adam), Sinai (with 
Moses), Zion (with David). 

4 The exact identification is uncertain; possibly the 
mount above Eden, where the Scthites live, is meant. Other* 
suggestions aro Mt. Ephraim, which would imply a Samaritarr 
authorship, and Lubar, on Ararat, which would connect well 
with the history of Noah. U 

• Cf i. 29. • Cf. Gen. v. 25. ~.\ 
' Cf. Gen. v. 29. • Cf. iii. 32. 

• This implies the view that Abel's body was not buried 
before Adarri's 1 . According to Pirke de R. Eliezer (xxi), 
Adam was at first uncertain what to do, but then buried 
Abel's corpse. 

56 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, iv 

of the heavens and therefore was it written concern- 
ing the tree of knowledge : "On the day that ye eat 
thereof ye will die." 1 For this reason he did not 
complete the years of this day ; for he died during it. 
31. At the close of this jubilee. Cain was killed after 
him in the same year; for his house f eJ W upon him ^ 
andhfijfed in the , m i d s t ^f h i r h ™ ^ , and he was 
kifledHby its stones; for with a stone he had killed 
Abel, andby a stone was. he killed in righteous judg- 
ment. 32. For this reason it Was ordained on the 
heavenly tables : " With the instrument with which 
a man killeth his neighbour with the same shall he be 
killed ; after the manner that he wounded him, in 
like manner shall they deal with him." 2 33. And in 
1205 a.m. the twenty-fifth jubilee Noah took to himself a wife, 
and her name was 'Emzara, the daughter of Rak6'el, 
the daughter of his father's brother, in the first year 
1207 a.m. in the fifth week : and in the third year thereof she 
1209 a.m. bare him Shem, in the fifth year thereof she bare him 
1212 a.m. Ham, and in the first year in the sixth week she bare 
him Japheth. 8 

The Fall of the Angels and their Punishment ; 
the Deluge foretold (v. 1-20; cf. Gen. vi. 1-12). 

V. And it came to pass when the children of men 
began to multiply on the face of the earth and daugh- 
ters were born unto them, that the angels of God 4 saw 
them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were 

1 Cf. Gen. ii. 14. Notice that " day " here is interpreted 
as = 1000 years — a belief early current among Jews and 
Christians (cf. Ber. rabba xix. on Gen. iii. 8), 2 Pet. iii. 8. 
Justin Martyr, Tryf>ho. lxxxi ; cf. also Pirke de R. Eliezer xviii. 

1 The lex taltonxs ; cf. Exod. xxi. 24 (" eye for eye, tooth 
for tooth ") ; Lev. xxiv. 19. Similar examples are given in 
2 Mace. v. 19 f., xv. 32 f. The rigorous application of this 
" law " was upheld by the Sadducees, as against the Pharisees. 

■ Cf. Gen. v. 22. Note that Shem is represented as the 
eldest; cf. Gen. x. 21 (R.V.). 

* This is the LXX rendering of Gen, vi. 2 (R.V. " sons of 
God ") and represents the older Jewish exegesis, which was 
jater given up. 


'1 1 
beautiful to look upon ; and they took themselves 
wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto 
them sons and they were giants. 1 2. And lawless- 
ness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted 
its way,* alike men and cattle and beasts and birds 
and everything that walketh on the earth — all of them 
corrupted their ways and their orders, and they 
began to devour 8 each other, and lawlessness increased 
on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts 
. of all men (was) thus evil continually. 4 3. And X}od 
looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, 
and all nesh had corrupted its orders, and all that 
were upon the earth 5 had wrought all manner of evil 
before His eyes. 4. And He said : " I shall destroy 
man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I 
have created." 5. But Noah found grace before the 
eyes of the Lord.* 6. And against the angels whom 
He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly 
wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out 
of all their dominion, and He bade us to bind them in 
the depths of the earth, and behold they are bound 
in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. 7. 
And against their sons went forth a command from 
before His face that they should be smitten with the 
sword, and be removed from under heaven. 8. And 
He said " My spirit will not always abide 7 on man ; 
for they also are flesh and their days shall be one 
hundred and twenty years." 9. And He sent His 
sword into their midst that each should slay his neigh- 
bour, and they began to slay each other till they all 
fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 
10. And their fathers were witnesses (of their destruc- 
tion), and after this they were bound in the depths 
of the earth for ever, until the day of the great con- 
demnation, 8 when judgment is executed on all those 
who have corrupted their ways and their works before 

1 Giants, i. 9. " Nephilim." • Cf. Gen. vi. 12. 

• Cf. 1 Enoch vii. 5. « Cf. Gen. vi. 5. 

• Cf. Gen. vi. 12. • Cf. Gen. vi. 7, 8. 

T Cf- Gen. vi. 3, R.V. marg. • Cf. 1 Enoch x. 13. 


the Lord. n. And He | destroyed! all from their 
places, and there jwasf not left one of them whom He 
judged not according to all their wickedness. 12. 
And He fmadet for all His works a new and righteous 
nature, 1 so that they should not sin in their whole 
nature for ever, but thould be all righteous «ach in 
his kind alway. 13. And the judgment of all is 
ordained arid written on the heavenly tables in right- 
eousness—even (the judgment of) all who depart 
from the path which is ordained for them to walk in ; 
and if they walk not therein, judgment is written down 
for every creature and for every kind. 14. And 
there is notjung in heaven or on earth, or in light or 
in darkness, or in Sheol or in the depth, or in the place 
of darkness (which is not judged) ; and all their 
judgments are ordained and written and engraved. 
15. In regard to all He will judge, the great according 
to his greatness, and the small according to his small- 
ness, and each according .to his way. 16. And He 
is not one who will regard the person (of any), nor is 
He one who will receive gifts, ii He saith that He will 
execute judgment on each : if one gave everything 
that is on the earth, He will not regard the gifts or the 
person (of any), nor accept anything at nis hands, 
for He is a righteous judged [17. And of the children 
of Israel It hath been written and ordained : If they 
turn to Him in righteousness, He will forgive all their 
transgressions and pardon all their sins. 18. It is 
written and ordained that He will show mercy to all 
who turn from all their guilt once each year.] 8 19. 

x 10-12, as Charles has shown, describe the final judg- 
ment. The tenses must be altered from past to future. 
Render : " until the day of the great condemnation, when 
judgment shall be executed. . . . And He shall destroy . . . 
and there shall not be left one of them whom He shall not 
have judged. . . . And He shall make," etc. 

* Cf. xl. 8; Deut. x. 17; 1 Chrpn. xix. 7. 

" The bracketed clauses have been either transposed here 
cr interpolated from xxxiv. 18-19. The reference is to the 
Day of Atonement which takes place on the 10th of the 
7th month. For " once each year," cf. Heb. ix. 7. 



And as for all those who corrupted their ways and 
their, thoughts before the flood, no man's person was 
accepted save that of Noah alone ; for his person was 
accepted in behalf of his sons, whom (God) saved from 
the waters of the flood on his account ; for his heart 
was righteous in all his ways, according as it was com- 
manded regarding him, and he had not departed from 
aught that was ordained for him. 20. And the Lord 
said that He would destroy everything which was upon 
the earth, both men ami cattle, and beasts, and fowls 
of the air, and that which moveth on the earth. 1 

The Building of the Ark ; the Flood (v. 21-32 ; 
cf. Gen. vi. 13-viii. 19). 

21. And He commanded Noah to make him an 
ark, that he might save himself from the waters oi 
the flood. 1 22. And Noah made the ark jn all respects 
as He commanded him, in the twenty-seventh jubilee 
of years, i n the fifth week in the fifth v earjon the 
new moon of the Jirst month) . 23. And he enterecT 
in the sixth (year) thereot, in the se cond month, on 
the new moon of the ser nnH mpjith^flM^jxtpSth^ 
and he entered, ana all that we brought to him, into 
the ark, and the Lord closed 8 it from without on the 
seventeenth 4 evening. 

" 24. And the Lord opened ^evgnflood-gates^ of heaven, 
And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, 
seven mouths in number. 

25. And the flood-gates began to pour down water 

from the heaven forty days and forty nights, 
And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, 
until the whole world was full of water. 

26. And the waters increased upon the earth : 
Fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the 

high mountains, 

1 Cf. Gen. vi. 7. > Cf. Gen. vi. 14. 

» Cf. Gen. vii.' i6 ( * Cf. Gen. vii. n. 

• Cf. 1 Enoch lxxxix. 2. Note the recurrence of the 
number seven in these connexions. 


. And the ark was lift up above the earth, 
And it moved upon the face of the waters. 1 
2^. And the water prevailed on the face of the earth 
five months — one hundred and fifty days. 1 28. And 
the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar, one of 
the mountains of Ararat. 8 2Q. And Ib n the new 
mooi ilin th e fou jlh month TFe fountain^ pi the great 
deep were closed and the flood-gates oi heaven were 
restrained; and on the new moon of the seventh 
mon^ all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were 
opened, and the water began to descend into the deep 
309 A.M. below. 4 30. And nn thp npw moon of th«* tenth month 
the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new 
moon ofjhe first m oiTth the earth became visible?* 
31. And the waters disappeared from above the earth 
in the fifth week in the seventh year thereof, and on 
the seventeenth • day in the second month the earth 
was dry. 32. And on the twenty-seventh^ thereof 
he opened the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and 
cattle, and birds, and every moving thing. 7 

Noah* 8 Sacrifice ; God's Covenant with him 
(cf . Gen. viii. 20-ix. 17). Instructions to Moses 
about eating of Blood, the Feast of Weeks, 
etc., and Division of the Year (vi. 1-38). 

VI. And on the new m , oon of the third mont h he 
went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that 
mountain. 8 2. And he made atonement for the earth, 9 
and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for 

1 For 24-26 cf. Gen. vii. 11, 12, 18, 20. 
1 Cf. Gen. vii. 24, viii. 3. 

• Cf. Gen. viii. 4. Lubar is mentioned again in vii. 1, 17. 
4 Cf. Gen. viii. 2; 1 Enoch lxxxix. 7. 

1 Cf. Gen. viii. 5, 13. 

• According to Gen. viii. 14 it \vas the 27th day of the 

1 Cf. Gen. viii. 10. 

■ Cf. Gen. -viii. 20. The mountain is Lubar. 

• The earth needed expiation aqcj cleansing for the vices 
and crimes that had polluted it, 


all the guilt of the earth ; for everything that had been 
on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the 
ark with Noah. 3. And he placed the fat thereof 
on the aitar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a 
sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the 
young of a dove, and placed a burnt sacrifice on the 
altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with 
oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over 
everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, 
acceptable before the Lord. 1 4. And the Lord smelt 
the goodly savour,* and He made a covenant with 
him that there should not "be any more a flood to 
destroy the earth ; * that all the days of the earth 
seed-time and harvest should never cease ; cold and 
heat, and summer and winter, and day and night 
should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 4 
5. "And you, increase ye and multiply upon the 
earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing 
upon it. 6 The fear of you and the dread of you I 
shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the 
sea. 6 6. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, 
and all winged things, and everything that moveth 
on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things 
for food ; as the green herbs, I have given you all 
things to eat. 7 7. But flesh, with the life thereof, with 
the blood, ye shall not eat ; for the life of all flesh is 
in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 
<nAt the hand of every man, at theJiaj}cLj}i^v.exy_3 
m ( beast) , shall I require the blood"DTman. 8 8. WhoscC 
sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be \ 
shed; for in the image of God made He man. 9 9. 
And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth." 10. 
And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat 

1 The sacrifice is elaborated here to accord with the de- 
Lev, ii. 

veloped ritual of a later age ; 

cf. Exod. xxix. 4c 

2-5. I5« 

1 Gen. viii. 21. 

1 Cf. Gen. ix. 11. 

4 Cf. Gen.) viii. 22. 

8 Cf. Gen. ix. 7. 

• Cf. Gen. ix. 1. 

7 Cf. Gen. ix. 2, 3 

■ Cf. Gen. ix. 4, 5. 

• Cf. Gen. ix. 6. 

62 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vi 

any blood that was in any flesh, and he made a cove- 
nant before the Lord God for ever throughout all the 
generations of the earth in this month. II. On this 
account He spake to thee l that thou shouldst make 
a covenant with the children of Israel in this monj li 
upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou 
shouldst sprinkle blood a upon them because of all 
the words of the* covenant, which the Lord made with 
them for ever. 12. And this testimony is written 
concerning you that you should observe it continually, 
so that you should not eat on any day any blood of 
beasts or .birds or cattle during all the days of the 
earth, and the man who eateth the blood of beast or 
of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, 
he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 13. 
And do thou command the children of Israel to eat 
no blood, so that their names and their seed may be 
before the Lord our God continually. 8 14. And for 
this4aw there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. 
They shall observe it throughout their generations, 
so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf 
with blood before the altar ; * every day and at the 
time of morning and evening they shall seek forgive- 
ness 6 on your behalf perpetually before the Lord 
that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 15 
And He gave to Noah • and his sons a sign that there 
should not again be a flood on the earth. 16. He 
set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal 
covenant that there should not again be a flood on 
the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 7 
17. For this reason it is ordained and written on the 
heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast 

1 i. e. Moses. 

1 The proper use of blood in the daily sacrifice is here 
referred to; cf. 14 below. 

• For 12-13 °f- L^v- xvii. 10, 12, 14 ; Deut. xii. 23. 
4 Cf. Lev. xvii. 11. 

• Cf. Num. xxviii. 3-8. Note that in our text here 11-14 
deal with the Mosaic development of the covenant with Noah. 

• The text here returns to Noah. 
7 Cf. Gen. ix. 13-15. 

chap, vi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 63 

of weeks * in this month once a year, to renew the 
covenant every year. 18. And this whole festival 
was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation 
till the days of Noah — twenty-six jubilees and five 
weeks of years : and Noah and his sons observed it for 
seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of 
Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his 
sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, 
and they ate blood. 1 19. But Abraham observed it, 
and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it 
up to thy days, and in thy days the children of Israel 
forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 
20. And do thou command the children of Israel to 
observe this festival in all their generations for a 
commandment unto them : one day s in the year in 
this month they shall celebrate the festival. 21. 
For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first- 
fruits : * this feast is twofold and of a double nature : 6 
according to what is written and engraven concerning 
it celebrate it. 22. For I have written in the book of 
the first law, § in that which I have written for thee, 
that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day 7 
in the year, and I explained to thee its sacrifices that 
the children of Israel should remember and should cele- 
brate it throughout their generations in this month, 
one day in every year. 23. And on the new moon 
of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth 

1 The " Feast of Weeks " (cf. Exod. xxxiv. 22) is here only 
connected with Noah's covenant, the establishment of which , 
it is supposed to commemorate. Later Judaism associated- 
it with the giving of the Law on Sinai. It was celebrated* 1 
according to our Book, on the 15th day of the 3rd month, r 

■ Notice that the non-observance of the Feast signalizes 
the breaking of the covenant-condition aboilt eating blood. 

• Or " the first day (of the" week). See 22 below. 1 

* It is called " the day of first-fruits " in Num. xxviii. 26. 

8 " Of a double nature " in that (?) it commemorates the 
covenant with Noah, and also ha3 an agricultural character. 

•i.e. the Pentateuch. 

7 Or "the .first day" (of the week) = Sunday. Con- 
sequently, Pentecost would always fall on the same day of 
the week, Sunday. This accords with the Sadducean view. 

f>4 THE, BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vi 

month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, 
and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days 
of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the 
four divisions of the year. 1 These are written and 
ordained as a testimony for ever. 24. And Noah 
ordained them for himself as feasts for the genera- 
tions for ever, so that they have become thereby a 
memorial unto him. 25. And on the n ew_mponof 
t he first month he was bidder^ {o make ior hj ms p ) f an ~ 
ark._a nd on that (day) the earth became dry anol he 
opened (the ark) and saw the earth, 26. And on the 
new moon of the fourth month the mouths of the 
depths of the abysses beneath were closed. And on 
the new moon of the seventh month all the mouths 
of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the waters 
began to descend into them. 2 27. And on the new 
moon of the tenth month the tops of the mountains 
were seen, and, Noah was glad. 8 28. And on this 
account herordained them for himself as feasts for a 
memorial for ever, and thus are they ordained. 29. 
And they -placed them on the heavenly tables, each 
had thirteen weeks ; from one to another (passed) 
their memorial, from the first to the second, and from 
the second to the third, and from the third to the 
fourth. 30. And all the days of the commandment 
will be two and fifty weeks of days, and (these will 
make) the entire year complete. 4 31. Thus it is en- 
graven and ordained on the heavenly tables. And 

1 According to Lev. xxiii. 24 only the 1st day of the 7th 
month was a " day of memorial." The " four days " here 
mentioned correspond to the four intercalary days " which 
are not reckoned in the reckoning of the year " mentioned 
in 1 Enoch lxxv. 1, They introduce the four quarters of 
the year and apparently, according to the scheme of 1 Enoch 
and our Book, were intended to be added to the 360 days 
(= 12 x 30), which made up the solar year (360 -j- 4 days). 

' Cf. 1 Enoch lxxxix. 7, o. 

• Cf. Gen. viii. 5. 

4 If the year consists of 52 weeks (=4x13 weeks), how 
can it be divided into 12 months of 30 days each, which is 
the reckoning implied throughout the Book ? For the 
solutions proposed see Charles's discussion, ad loc. 

chap, vi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 65 

there is no neglecting (this commandment) for a single 
year or from year to year. 32. And command thou 
the children of Israel that they observe the years 
according to this reckoning — three hundred and 
sixty-four days, and (these) will constitute a complete 
year, and they will not disturb its time from its days 
and from its feasts ; for everything will fall out in 
them according to their testimony, and they will not 
leave out any day nor disturb any feasts. 1 33. But if 
they do neglect and do riot observe them according 
to His commandment, then they will disturb all their 
seasons, and the years will be dislodged from this 
(order), [and they will disturb the seasons and the 
years will be dislodged] ■ and they will neglect their 
ordinances. 34. And all the children of Israel will 
forget, and will not find the path of the years, and will 
forget the new moons, and seasons, and sabbaths, 
and they will go wrong as to all the order of the years. 8 
35. For I know and from henceforth shall I declare 
it unto thee, and it is not of my own devising ; for the 
book (lieth) written before me, and on the heavenly 
tables the division of days is ordained, lest they forget 
the feasts of the covenant and walk according to the 
feasts of the Gentiles after their error and after their 
ignorance. 36. For there will be those who will 
assuredly make observations of the moon — now (it) 
disturbeth the seasons and cometh in from year to year 
ten days too soon.* 37. For this reason the years will 
come upon them when they will disturb (the order), 

1 The effect of a solar year reckoned at 364 days would 
be that the festivals would always be celebrated on the 
>same day of the week. Nisan 14 would always fall on a 
Sabbath, Nisan 22 (when the wave sheaf was to be offered) 
on a Sunday, and the Feast of Weeks, Sivan 15, on a Sunday. 
There is some reason to suppose that this conception of a solar 
year of 364 days has a dogmatic basis. See Introd., p. xvii. 

1 The bracketed words are a dittograph. 

• For 33-34 cf. 1 Enoch lxxxii. 4-6. 

' A lunar year consists of 354 days. Our author wages a 
polemic against the use of the moon for determining the 
seasons and feasts. But a lunar year was accepted by the 

66 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vi 

and make an abominable (day) the day of testimony, 
and an unclean day a feast day, and they will con- 
found all the days, the holy with the unclean, and the 
unclean day with the holy; for they will go wrong 
as to the months and sabbaths and feasts and jubilees. 
38. For this reason I command and testify to thee 
that thou mayest testify to them ; for af^r thy death 
thy children will disturb (them), so that they will 
not make the year three hundred and sixty-four days 
only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the 
new moons * and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, 
and they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of 

" Noah offers Sacrifice ; the Cursing of Canaan 
(cf. Gen. ix. 20-28) : Noah's Sons and Grand- 
sons (cf. Gen. x.) and their Cities. Noah's 
Admonitions (vii. 1-39). 

1317 A.M. VII. And in the seventh week in the first year 
thereof, in this jubilee, Noah planted vines on the 
mountain on which the ark had rested, named 
Lubar, 2 one of the Ararat Mountains, and they pro- 

1320 a.m. duced fruit in the fourth year, 1 and he guarded their 

fruit, and gathered it in this year in the seventh 
month. 2. And he made wine therefrom and put it 

1321 a.m. into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth year, until the 

first day, on the new moon of the first month. 3. And 
he celebrated with joy the day of this feast, and he 
made a -burnt sacrifice unto the Lord, one young ox 
and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a 
kict of the goats, that he might make atonement 
thereby for himself and his sons.* 4. And he prepared 
the kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh 
that was on the altar which he had made, and all the 

1 Render (for " new moons ") " beginnings of the months." 
» Cf. v. 28. 

• Cf. Lev. xix. 23-25 (fruit of trees not to be touched 
during the first three years after planting). 

* Cf. Num. xxix. 2, 5. 

; m 

chap, vii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 67 

fat he laid on the altar where he made the burnt 
sacrifice, and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and 
he laid all their flesh upon the altar. 5. And he 
placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and 
afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had 
previously made on the altar, and he placed incense 
on the altar and caused a sweet savour to ascend 
acceptable before the Lord his God. 6. And he 
rejoiced and drank of this wine, he and his children 
with joy* 7. And it was evening, and he went into 
his tent, and being drunken he lay down and slept, 
and was uncovered in his tent as he slept. 1 8. And 
Ham saw Noah his father naked, and went forth and 
told his two brethren without. 9. And Shem took his 
garment and arose, he and Japheth, and they placed 
the garment on their shoulders and went backward 
and covered the shame of their father, and their faces 
were backward.' 10. And tyoah awoke from his sleep 
and knew all that his younger son had done unto 
him, and he cursed his son and said : " Cursed be 
Canaan; an enslaved servant shall he be unto his 
brethren." s 11. And he blessed Shem, and said : 
" Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, and Canaan shall 
be his servant. 12. God shall enlarge Japheth, and 
God shall dwell in the dwelling of Shem, and Canaan 
shall be his servant." * 13. And Ham knew that his 
father had cursed his younger son, and he was dis- 
pleased that he had cursed his son, and he parted 
- irom his father, he and his sons with him, Cush and 
Mizraim and Put and Canaan. 5 14. And he built for 
himself a city and called its name after the name of 
his wife N6 elatama'flk . 15. And Japheth saw it, 
and became envious of his brother, and he too built 
for himself a city, and he called its name after the 
name of his wife ' Adataneses. 16. And Shem dwelt 
with his father Noah, and he built a city close to his 
father on the mountain, and he too called its name 

1 For 6-7 fcf. Gen. ix. 21. * For S-9 cf. Gen. be. 22-23. 

• Cf. Gen. ix. 24-25. 4 For 11-12 cf. Gen. ix. 26-27. 

• Cf. Gen. x. 6. 

68 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vn 

after the name of his wife S6d6q£t61gb£b. 1 17. And 
behold these three cities are near Mount Lubar; 
Sedeqet£l£bab fronting the mountain on its east ; and 
Na'61atama'uk on the south ; 'AdatanSses towards the 
west. 18. And these are the sons of Shem : Elam. 
and Asshur, and Arpachshad — this (son) was born 
two years after the flood — and Lud, and Aram.' 19. 
The sons of Japheth : Gomer and Magog and Madai 
and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras : these are 
1324-1372 the sons of Noah. 8 20. 4 And in the twenty-eighth 
a.m. jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the 

ordinances and commandments, and all the judgments 
that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe 
righteousness, and to cover the shame 6 of their flesh, 
and to bless their Creator, and honour father and 
mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their 
souls from fornication and uncleanness and all ini- 
quity. Si. For owing to these three things • came 
the flood upon the earth, namely, owing to the forni- 
cation wherein the Watchers against the law of their 
ordinances went a whoring after the daughters of men, 
and took themselves wives of all which they chose : T 
and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 22. 
And they begat sons the Naphidtm, 8 and jthey were 
all unlikej,* and they devoured one another : and the 
Giants^lewllieliipiuL and the Naphil slew the Elj6, 
and the EIj6* mankind, and one man another. 23. 
And every one sold himself w to work iniquity and to 

1 «= " righteousness of the heart." 

1 Cf. Gen. x. 22. • Cf. Gen. x. 2. 

* From here to the end of the chapter there is incorporated 
a fragment of the lost Book of Noah. 

• Cf. ui. 31. 

* viz. fornication, uncleanness and all iniquity. Accord- 
ing to Maimonides (Kings, 89) Adam received six command- 
ments against (1) idolatry; (2) blasphemy; (3) murder; 
(4) incest; (5) stealing; (6) perverting justice. These were 
enjoined by Noah, who added a seventh, prohibiting the 
eating of flesh with blood/ 

1 Cf. Gen. vi. 2 ; 1 Enoch vii. 1. ••*.*. the Nephilim. 

• Text probably corrupt. 

w Cf. 1 Kings xxi. 20 (phrase). 

*.' ■•• ■*' >/\ • .'■*•■+■«<+ ^4*6% 4 H>*+ 



5 J chap, vii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 69 

shed much blood, 1 and the earth was filled with 
J iniquity. 1 24. And after this they sinned against the 

beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on 
the earth : 8 and much blood was shed on the earth, and 
every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity 
, and evil continually. 4 25. And the Lord destroyed 
everything from off the face of the earth ; 5 because 
, of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the 
blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth 
He destroyed everything. 26. " And we were left, 
I • and you, my sons, and everything that entered 
with us into the ark, and behold I see your works be- 
fore me that ye do not walk in righteousness ; for 
in the path 01 destruction ye have begun to walk, 
and ye are parting one from another, and are envious 
one of another, and (so it cometh) that ye are not in 
harmony, my sons, each with his brother.. 27. For 
I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) 
seductions against you and against your children, 
and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death 
ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and 
that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the 
earth. 7 28. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and 
whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be 
destroyed from the earth. 8 

29. And there will not be left any man that eateth 

Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, 

Nor will there be left to him any seed or descen- 
dants living under heaven ; 

For into Sheol will they go, 

And into the place of condemnation will they 

1 Cf. 1 Enoch ix. I. 

■ Cf. Gen. vi. 11; r Enoch ix. 9. 
3 Cf. 1 Enoch vii. 5. * Cf. Gen. vi. 5. 

■ Cf. Gen. vi. 7, vii. 4. 

• Noah is the speaker here and to the end of the chapter. 
7 Cf. x. 1 (x. 1 -1 5 is another excerpt from the Noah apoca- 

■ Cf. Gen. ix. 4, 6; Lev. vii. 27. 

70 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap.vii 

And into the darkness of the deep will they all be 
removed by a violent death. 1 v 

30. There shall be no blood seen upon you of all }• 
the blood there shall be all the days in which ye have 
killed any beasts or cattle or whatever flieth upon the 
earth, and work ye a good work to your souls by 
covering that which hath been shed ■ on the face of the 
earth, jj. And ye shall not be like him who eateth 
with blood, but guard yourselves that none may eat 
blood befpre you : * cover the blood, for thus have I 
been commanded to testify to you and your children, 
together with all flesh. 32. And suffer not the soul 
to be eaten with the flesh, that your blood, which is 
your life, may not be required at the hand of any flesh 
that sheddeth (it) on the earth. 4 33. For the earth will 
not be clean from the blood which hath been shed upon 
it ; 5 for (only) through the blood of him that shed it * 
will the earth be purified throughout all its genera- 
tions. 34. And now, my children, hearken : work 
judgment and righteousness that ye may be planted 
in righteousness ' over the face of the whole earth, 
and your glory lifted up before my God, who saved 
me from the waters of the flood. 1 35. And behold, 
ye will go and build for yourselves cities, and plant 
in them all the plants that are upon the earth, and 
moreover all fruit-bearing trees. 36. For three years 
the fruit of everything that is eaten will not be 
gathered : and in the fourth year its fruit will be 
accounted holy [and they will offer the first-fruits] ,• 

1 Cf. xxii. 22 ; 1 Enoch ciii. 7, 8. " ' 

• Cf. Lev. xvii. 13; Ezek. xxiv. 7 (here the precept if 
carried back to Noah). 

• One of the seven Noachic laws (binding on all men) was 
the prohibition of eating flesh with the blood. Cf. note on 
2i above. * Cf. Gen. ix. 4; Lev. xvii. 10, u, 14. 

• Cf. vi. 2. • Cf. Num. xxxv. 33. 
7 A frequent metaphor in the O.T. Israel is " the plant 

of righteousness " (x Enoch x. 16, etc.). 

• Cf. 2 Pet. ii. 5. 

• These words, if genuine, direct that in the fourth year 
only the first-fruits (not all the fruit) are to be offered to 
God. Cf. Lev. xix. 23-24. 


chap, vii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 71 

acceptable before the Most High God, who created 
heaven and earth and all things. Let them offer in 
abundance the first of the wine and oil (as) first-fruits 
on the altar of the Lord, who receiveth it, and what 
is left let the servants of the house of the Lord l eat 
before the altar which receiveth (it). 37. And in the 
fifth year * 

make ye the release so that ye release it s in right- 
eousness and uprightness, and ye shall be righteous, 
and all that you plant will prosper. 38. For thus 
did Enoch, the father of your father command 
Methuselah, his son, and Methuselah his son Lamech, 
and Lamech commanded me all the things which his 
fathers commanded him. 39. And I also will give 
you commandment, my sons, as Enoch commanded 
his son in the first jubilees : whilst still living, the 
^pvpfltM jn hi«; gpnppat'^D, he commanded and testi- 
fied to his son and to his sons' sons until the day of 
his death." 

Genealogy of the Descendants of Shem : Noah 
and his Sons divide the Earth (viii. 1-30; 
cf. Gen. x.). 

VIII. In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, 
in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself 
a wife and her name was RasijJLjJu [the daughter of 
Susan,] the daughter of ElamTand she bare him a son 
in the third year in this week, and he called his name 
Kainam. 5 2. And the son grew, and his father taught 

. 1 i. e. the priests. Later Judaism directed that the rest 
of the fruit should be eaten by the owners within the walls 
of Jerusalem. The view of the text is supported by the 
Samaritans, the Karaite Jews and Ibn Ezra. 

• Charles suspects a lacuna in the text here. 

• Or render " (In the seventh year) ye will let it (the land) 
rest and lie fallow" (Charles). 

4 Cf. 1 Enoch lx. 8, xciii. 3; Jude 14. 

• This name occurs in the LaX of Gen. xi. 13, but not in 
the MT or other Versions. It also occurs in the genealogy in 
Luke iii. 36. 

72 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vm 

him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place 
where he might seize for himself a city. 3. And he 
found a writing which former (generations) had 
carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, 
and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it ; for it 
contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance 
with which they used to observe the omens of the sun 
and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven. 1 4. 
And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it ; 
for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he 
should be angry with him on account of it. 5. And 
in the thirtieth jubilee, in the second week, in the 
1 429 a.m. first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her 
name was MSlka^ the daughter of Madai. the son of 
1432 a.m. Japheth, and in the tourth year he begat a son, and 
called his name Shelah ; ■ for he said : " Truly I 
have been sent." 8 6. [And in the fourth year he 
was born], and Shelah grew up and took to himself 
a wife, and her name was Mu'ak. the^ daughter of 
KfiS&j his father's brother, in the one and "Ihirtieth- 
1499 A.M. jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year thereof. 
7. And she bare him a son in the fifth year thereof, 
and he called his name Eber : and he took unto him- 
1503 a.m. self a wife, and her name was ' Azurad, 4 the daught er 
1564 a.m. ofNebr6d, in the thirty-second Jubilee, in the seventh 
week, irftne third year thereof. 8. And in the sixth 
1567 A.M. year thereof, she bare him a son, and he called his 
name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the 
children of Noah began to divide th e earth amn n g s t 
themselves : for this reason Re called his name Peleg. 6 
9. And they divided (it) secretly • amongst themselves, 

1 Cf. Josephus, Ant. i. 2, 3, who assigns this wisdom not 
to the Watchers, but to the children of Seth. 
■ Cf. Gen. x. 24. 

• A paronomasia is implied in the original Hebrew here. 

• Read 'Aztrd. 

6 There is a play (in the original Hebrew) on the meaning 
of the name Peleg here. 

• The secret division of the earth is followed by an authori- 
tative one by Noah, and made binding on his descendants, 
Canaan is included in Shem's lot. Hence, the Israelite con- 

;. f 

chap, vni] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 73 

and told it to Noah. 10. And it came to pass in the 
beginning of the thirty-third jubilee that they divided 
the earth into three parts, for Shem and flam and 
Japheth, according to the inheritance of each, in the 
first year in the first week, when one of us, 1 who had 
been sent, was with them. 11. And he called his 
sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their 
children, an d he divided the earth into the lots, 
which his three sons were to take in possession, and 
they reached forth their hands, and took the writing 
out of the bosom of Noah, their father. 12. And. 
there came forth on the writing as Shem's lot * the 
middle of the earth 8 which he should take as an 
inheritance for himself and for his sons for the genera-V 
tions of eternity, from the middle of the mountain! 
range of Rafa, 4 from the mouth of the water from the\ 
river Tina, 8 and his portion goeth towards the west 
through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it 
reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this 
river goeth forth and poureth its waters into the sea 
M£'at, 6 and this river rfoweth into the great sea. And 
all that is towards the north is Japheth's, and all that 
is towards the south belongeth to Shem. 13. And it 
extendeth till it reacheth gaiflsfllL 1 this is in the bosom 
of the tongue 8 which looketh towards the south. 14. 

quest later is justified. Noah's , d jyioinn nf thf* earth ; t — 

alluded tojnj?jfke de R. Eliezer xxiii 
"*" * t. B. oueof the arigefe 

1 For the countries included in Shem's lot, see 21, ix. 2-6, 
136. According to Epiphanius it extended from Persia and 
Bactria to India, to Rhinocurura (between Egypt and 

8 According to Ezek. xxxviii. 12 (1 Enoch xxvi. 1) Palestine 
was the " navel " of the earth. 

* Probably the Rhipaean mountains (identified sometimes 
with the Ural mountains). 

• i.e. the river Tanais or Don. 

* i.e. the Maeotis or Sea of Azov. 

T i.e. (?) the Rhinocurura ( = "the torrent of Egypt") 
on the confines of Egypt and Palestine (Charles) ; cf. Isa. 
xxvii. 12. 

• i.e. either promontory of land, or bay. „ 

74 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vm 

And his portion extendeth along the great sea, and it 
extendeth in a straight line till it reacheth the west of 
the tongue which looketh towards the south ; l for this 
sea is named the tongue of the Egyptian Sea. 2 15. And 
it turneth from here towards the south towards the 
mouth of the great sea 8 on the shore of (its) waters, 
and it extendeth to the west to ' Af ra,* and it extendeth 
till it reacheth the waters of the river Gihon, and to 
the south of the waters of Gihon,* to the banks of 
this river. 16. And it extendeth towards the east, till 
it reacheth the Garden of Eden, to the south thereof, 
[to the south] and from the east of the whole land of 
Eden and of the whole east, it turneth to the feast,! * 
and proceedeth till it reacheth the east of the mountain 
named Rafa, and it descendeth to the bank of the 
mouth of the river Tina. 17. This portion came forth 
by lot for Shem and his sons, that they should possess 
it for ever unto his generations for evermore. 18. 
And Noah re jnir r d that thi^ p^rti^p ^?m» fr)rj iifn r 


"and for hig s on*; and he remembered all 
had spoken with his mouth in prophecy ; for he had 
said : 

" Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, 
And may the Lord dwell in the dwelling of 
Shem/' 7 

19. And he knew that the Garden of Eden is the 
holy of holies, and the dwelling of the Lord, and 
Mount Sinai the centre of the desert, and Mount 
Zion — t he centre of the navel of the earth : these 
three 8 were created as holy places facing each other. 

20. And he blessed the God of gods, who had put the 
word of the Ldrd into his mouth, and the Lord for 
evermore. 21. And he knew that a blessed portion 

1 i.t. (?) the promontory on which Mt. Sindi is situated. 

• *'. e. the Gull of Akaba; cf. Isa. xi. 15. 

• ? the northern waters of the Red Sea. 

• i. e. Africa in the restricted 6ense of the Roman province 
which included Egypt and the other northern parts of Africa 
bordering the Mediterranean. 

• i. e. the Nile. • ? read " west." ' Cf. vii. 11. 

• These three holy places fall within ^hern's lot. 

• w 4 **. 

chap, vin] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 75 

and a blessing had come to Shem and his sons unto 
the generations for ever — the whole land of Eden' 
and the whole land of the Red Sea, and the whole 
land of the east, and India, and on the Red Sea and 
the mountains thereof, and all the land of Bashan, and 
all the land of Lebanon and the islands of Kaftur, 1 
and all the mountains of Sanir * and 'Amana, 8 and 
the mountains of Asshur in the north, and all the 
land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Sflsan and 
Ma'gdai, 4 and all the mountains of Ararat, and all 
the region beyond the sea, which is beyond the 
mountains of Asshur towards the north, a blessed 
and spacious land, and all that is in it is very good. 
22. 5 And for Ham came forth the second portion, 
beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right ■ of 
the Garden, and it extendcth towards the south and it 
extendeth to all the mountains of fire, 7 and it extendeth 
towards the west to the sea of 'Atel 8 and it extendeth 
towards the west till it reacheth the sea of Ma'uk • — 
that (sea) into which feverything which is not de- 
stroyed descendethj. 10 23. And it goeth forth towards 
the north to the limits of Gadir, 11 and it goeth forth to 
the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the 
great sea till it draweth near to the river Gihon, and 
goeth along the river Gihon till it reacheth the right of 
the Garden of Eden. 24. And this is the land which 
came forth for Ham as the portion which he was to 
occupy for ever for himself and his sons unto their 

I ? Crete. The ancient Versions identify Caphtor with 

■ i. e. Senir (Deut. iii. 9; Etek. xxvii. 5) = Hermon. 

? Mt. Amanus in N. Syria. 

t. e. Media; cf. x. 35. 

22-24 & ve details of Ham's portion, which includes all 
Africa and certain parts of Asia. 

I. e. to the south. 

Cf. 1 Enoch xviii. 6—9, xxiv. 1-3. 

♦ . *. the Atlantic. 

? The great ocean stream in the extreme west. 

The text may be corrupt. Render, perhaps, " if any 
thing descends into it, it perishes " (Charles). 

II t. e. Cadiz. 

76 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, vm 

generations for ever. 25. 1 And for Japheth came 
forth the third portion beyond * the river Tina ■ to the 
north of the outflow of its waters, and it extendeth 
north-easterly to the whole region of Gog 4 and to 
all the country east thereof. 26. And it extendeth 
northerly to the north, and it extendeth to the moun- 
tains of Qelt * towards the north, and towards the 
sea of Ma'uk, and it goeth forth to the east of Gadir 
as far as the region of the waters of the sea. 27. And 
it extendeth until it approacheth the west of Fara • 
and it returneth towards 'Affirag, 7 and it extendeth 
easterly to the waters of the sea of Mft'at. 8 28. And 
it extendeth to the region of the river Tina in a north- 
easterly direction until it approacheth the boundary 
of its waters towards the mountain Rafa, 9 and it 
turneth round towards the north. 2Q. This is the land 
which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the 
portion of his inheritance which he should possess 
tor himself and his sons, for their generations for 
ever; five great islands, 10 and a great land in the 
north. 30. But it is cold, and the land of Ham is 
hot, and the land of Shem is neither hot nor cold, but 
it is of blended cold and heat. 

Subdivision of the Three Portions amongst the 
Grandchildren : Oath taken by Noah's 
Sons (ix. 1-15 ; cf. Gen. x. partly). 

IX. And Ham divided amongst his sons, and the 
first portion came forth for Cush ll towards the east, 
and to the west of him for Mizraim, 1 * and to the west 

1 25-290 Japheth 's portion (N. Asia, Europe, five great 
islands) ; cf. ix. 7-13. 

1 Japheth 's portion is elaborately described in Josephus, 
Ant. i. 6, 1. , / 

• i. e. the river Don. * 

4 In N. Asia. Josephus identifies Gog with the Scythians. 

• Qilt = probably the Celts. • ? Africa. T ? Phrygia. 

• i. e. the Sea of Azov (see viii. 12 above). 

• ? the Ural mountains (cf. viii. 12 above). 

10 Including, probably, Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica. ., 
u -, Ethiopia. " i. $. Egypt. 

9 1 


of him for Put, 1 and to the west of him [and to the 
west thereof] on the sea * for Canaan. 8 2. And Shem 
also divided amongst his sons, and the first portion 
>• came forth for Elam and his sons, to the east of the 

the river Tigris till it approacheth the east, the whole 
land of India, and on the Red Sea on its coast, and 
-the. waters of D£dan, and all the mountains of Mebri 
and '£la, and all the land of Susan and all that is 
on the side of Pharnak 4 to the Red Sea and the river 
Tina. 3. And for Asshur came forth the second 
/ portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh and 

r bhinar and to the border of India, and it ascendeth and 

skirteth the river. 4. And for Arpachshad came forth 
the third portion, all the land of the region of the 
Chaldees io the east of the Euphrates, bordering on 
l V the Red Sea, and all the waters of the desert close to 

r ' the tongue of the sea which looketh towards! Egypt, 
all the land of Lebanon and Sanfr and 'Amana 8 to 
the border of the Euphrates. 5. And for Aram e there 
came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopo- 
tamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the 
north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains 
of Asshur and the land of 'Arara. 7 6. And there 
came forth for Lud 8 the fifth portion, the mountains 
of Asshur and all appertaining to them till it reacheth 
^ * -. the Great Sea, and till it reacheth the east of Asshur 

his brother. 7. And Japheth also divided the land 
of his inheritance amongst his sons. 8.. And the 
first portion came forth for Gomer to the east from 
the north side to the river Tina; and in che north 
there came forth for Magog all the inner portions of 
the north until it reacheth to the sea of M6'at. 9 And 

/ * i. 9. Libya (west of Egypt). 

* *. §. the Atlantic. Fqr Canaan's portion (from Libya to 
the Atlantic] cf. x. 28-29. 

• For 1 cf. Gen. x. 6. 

4 ? Pharnacia on the coast of Pontus (Charles). 

* Cf. viii. 21. • t. e. the Syrians. 
T Ararat; cf. viii. 21. 

• According to Josephus the descendants of Lud were the 

78 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, ix 

for Madai came forth as his portion that he should 
possess from the west of his two brothers to the 
islands, 1 and to the coasts of the islands. 10. And for 
Javan * came forth the fourth portion every island • 
and the islands which are towards the border of Lud. 
II. And for Tubal * there came forth the fifth portion 
in the midst of the tongue which approacheth towards 
the border of the portion of Lud to the second tongue, 
to the region beyond the second tongue unto the third 
tongue. 6 12. And for Meshech came forth the sixth 
portion, all the region beyond the third tongue • 
till it approacheth the east of Gadir. 7 13. And for 
Tiras ■ there came forth the seventh portion, four 
great islands • in the midst of the sea, which reach 
to the portion of Ham [and the islands of Kamaturi 
came out by lot for the sons of Arpachshad as his 
inheritance]. 10 14. And thus the sons of Noah 
divided unto their sons in the presence of Noah 
their father, and he bound them all by an oath, 
imprecating a curse on every one that sought to seize 
the portion which had not fallen (to him) by his 
lot. 15. And they all said, "So be it ; so be it," 
for themselves and their sons for ever throughout 
their generations till the day of judgment, on which 
the Lord God shall judge them with a sword and with 
fire, for all the unclean wickedness of their errors, 
wherewith they have filled the earth with transgression 
and uncleanness and fornication and sin. 

1 Including ( ?) Britain and Ireland. 

• i.e. properly Ionia (so Isa. lxvi. 19; Ezek. xxvii. 13) : 
but in Daniel (viii. 21, x. 20, xi. 2) it = the Graeco-Mace- 
donian Empire. Here it seems to embrace all the islands 
off the coast of Asia Minor. 

• ? coastland. 

• Tubal's portion apparently extends from Thrace to Italy. 
' The three tongues of land may be Thrace, Greece and Italy. 
■ i. e. probably Italy. T 1. e. Cadiz. 

• The descendants of Tiras may have been the Tyrseni, a 
branch of the Pelasgians. 

• Cf. viii. 29. 

M The bracketed words are probably an interpolation 
(Charles). Arpachsad was a son of Shem. •*• 

•*v*ift4r< 1 


Chap.x] Th£ BOOK OF JUBILEES 79 

Noah's Sons led astray by Evil Spirits ; Noah's 
Prayer ; Mastema ; Death of Noah (x. 1-17 ; 
cf. Gen. ix. 28). 

X. 1 And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean 
demons ■ began to lead astray fthe children off s the 
sons of Noah, and to make to err and destroy them. 
2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, 
and they told him concerning the demons which 
were leading astray and blinding and slaying his 
sons' sons. 3. And he prayed before the Lord his 
God, and said : 

" God of the spirits of all flesh, 4 who hast shown 
mercy unto me, 
And hast saved me and my sons from the waters 

of the flood, 
And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst 
the sons of perdition ; * 

For Thy grace hath been great towards me, 
And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul ; 

Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons, 
And let not wicked spirits rule over them 
Lest they should destroy them from the earth. 

4. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may 
increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 

5. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers 
of these spirits, acted in my day : and as for these 
spirits which are living, imprison them and hpld 
them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them 
not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, 
my God ; for these are malignant, and created in 

1 Here we have (in x. 1-15) another fragment of the lost 
Apocalypse of Noah (as in vii. 20-39). The Hebrew original 
of 1-2 and 9-14 of this section is extant. 

1 ». e. the spirits which issued from the children of the 
angels and the daughters of men. 

• Omit tht children of. 

4 Cf. Num. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16. 

• Cf. 2 Thess. ii. 3. 

80 s THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, x 

order to destroy. 6. And let them not rule over the 
spirits of the living ; for Thou alone canst exercise 
dominion over them. And let them not have power 
over the sons of the righteous from henceforth and for 
evermore." 7. And the Lord our God bade us to 
bind all. 1 8. And the chief of the spirits, Mastfima, 1 ' , t 1 
came and said : " Lord, Creator, let some of them ' • ■•' 
remain before me, arid let them hearken to my voice, 
and do all that I shall say unto them ; for if some of 
them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute 
the power of my will on. the sons of men ; for these are 
for corruption and leading astray before my judg- , 

ment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men." 
9. And He said : " Let the tenth part of them 
remain before him, and let nine parts descend into 
the place of condemnation." 8 10. And one of us 4 
He commanded that we should teach Noah all their 
medicines ; for He knew that they would not walk in ■ 
uprightness, nor strive in righteousness, n. And 
we did according to all His words : all the malignant 
evil ones we bound in the place of condemnation, 
and a tenth part of them we left that they might be 
subject before Satan * on the earth. 12. And we 
explained to Noah all the medicines of their diseases, 
together with their seductions, how he might heal 
them with herbs of the earth. 13. AndNoath wrote 
down all things in a book as we instructed him con- 
cerning every kind of medicine. Thus the evil 

1 Cf. 1 Enoch x. 4, 12. 

* The word apparently ■■ ma$tifn (Hif. part of $itam), 
"to be adverse, "inimical"; the Heb. noun ma$tem& s= 
" animosity," in Hos. ix. 7, 8. Thus the word ■= Satan 
(" adversary "). As a proper name it is practically confined 
to the Jubilees-literature. The evil spirits under the guidance 
of Mast£ma tempt, accuse and destroy men. 

* Only one-tenth are permitted to act freely against man- 
kind till the Day of Judgment; but in 1 Enoch xv^-xvi. all 
the demons are allowed to do this. 

* The angel Raphael is referred to, as is shown by the 
Hebrew Book of Noah. For Raphael in this connection cf. 
Tobit iii. 17, xii. 14, 15. 

* Thus Satan and Mastema are identical. 



spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of 
Noah. 14. And he gave all that he had written to 
Sh prtl i his eldest son; for he loved hj m^jn gly 
above all his son s. 15. And Noah slept ( with his 
fathers, and was buried on Mount Lubar in the land 
of Ararat. 16. Nine hundred and fifty years he 
completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two > 
weeks and five years. 17. And in his life on earth he 
excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the 
righteousness, wherein he was perfect. For Enoch's 
office was ordained for a testimony to the genera- 
tions of the world, 1 so that he should recount all the 
deeds of generation unto generation, till the day of 

The Tower o! Babel and the Confusion of 
Tongues (x. 1&-27; cf. Gen. xi. 1-9). 

18. And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first 
year in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife, 
whose name was L6rmijLJ}ieLjiaji^^ 
and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this 
week, and he called his name Reu ; ■ for he said : 
11 Behold the children of men have become evil s 
through the wicked purpose of building for themselves 
a city an d a tnwpr jp the land of Shinar." 19. For 
they departed from the land of Ararat eastward to 
Shinar; for in his days they built the city and the 
tower, saying, " Go to, let us ascend thereby into 
heaven." * 20. And they began to build, and in 
the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the 
bricks served them for stone, and the clay 5 with which 
they cemented them together was asphalt which 
cometh out of the sea, and out of the fountains of 
water in the land of Shinar. 21. And they built it : 
forty and three years were they building it ;. its i 

1 Cf. iv. 24. ■ Cf. Gen. xi. 18. 

• There is a play 00 the name Reu in Hebrew here {re' A 
. . . ra&). 
4 Cf. Gen. xi. 4. • Cf. Gen. xi. 3. 



breadth was 203 bricks, and the height (of a brick) 
was the third of one; its height amounted to 5433 
cubits and 2 palms, and (the extent of one wall 
was) thirteen stades (and of the other thirty stades). 
22. And the Lord our God said unto us : " Behold, 
they are one people, and (this) they begin to do, and 
now nothing will be withholden from them. Go to, 
let us go -down and confound their language, that 
they may not understand one another's speech/ 
and they may be dispersed into cities and nations, 
and one purpose will no longer abide with them till 
the day of judgment." 23. And the Lord descended, 
and we descended with Him to see the city and the 
tower which the children of men had built. 24. And 
He confounded their language, and they no longer 
understood one another's speech, and they ceased 
then to build the city and the tower. 25. For this 
reason the whole land of Shinar is called Babel, be- 
cause the Lord did there confound all the language of 
the children of men, and from thence they were dis- 
persed * into their cities, each according to his language 
x and his nation. 1 26. And the Lord sent a_jniglity» 
<Ra^- whyii-again&t-4he-towfiX and overthrew it upon the 
^A ' earth, and behold it was between Asshur and Babylon 

in the laad-of Shinar, and they called its name " Over- 
1688 am throw." * 27. In the fourth week in the first year 
in the .beginning thereof in the four and thirtieth 
jubilee, were they dispersed from the land of Shinar,: 

1 Cf. Gen. xi. 6 f . ■ Cf. Gen. xl. 9. 

* According to Jewish tradition seventy nations (under ' 
seventy patron angels) were thus created. 

* An old tradition ; cf. Sibyll. Oracles iii. 98-103 ; Josephus, 
Ant. i. 4. 3. 

* A play on the preceding verb (" overthrew "). But its 
real name was Babel. 


The Children of Noah enter their Districts ; 
Canaan seizes Palestine wrongiully ; Ma- 
dai receives Media (x. 28-36) 

28. And Ham and his sons went into the land which 
he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion 
in the land of the south. 1 29. And Canaan saw the 
land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt that it was very 
good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance 
to the west (that is to) the sea, 2 and he dwelt in the 
land of Lebanon, eastward and westward from the 
border of Jordan and from the border of the sea. s 
30. And Ham, his father, and Cush and Mizraim, his 
brothers, said unto him : " Thou hast settled in a 
land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us 
by lot : do not do so ; for if thou dost do so, thou and 
thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through 
sedition ; for by sedition ye have settled, and by 
sedition Will thy children fall, and thou shalt be rooted 
out for ever. 31. Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem ; 
for to Shem and to his sons did it come by their lot. 

32. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond 
all the sons of Noah, by the curse * by which we 
bound ourselves by an oath in the presence of the 
holy judge, 8 and in the presence of Noah our father." 

33. But he did not hearken unto them, and dwelt 
in the land of Lebanon from Hamath • to the entering 
of Egypt, 7 he and his sons until this day. 34. And 
for this reason that land is named Canaan. 35. And 
Japheth and his sons went towards the sea and dwelt 
in the land of their portion, and Madai saw the land 
of the sea and it did not please him, and he begged a 
(portion) from Elam and Asshur and Arpachshad, 

1 " South " should be " north " here : N. Africa is meant. 

* i. e. N.-W. Africa (his true inheritance). 

' Canaan wrongfully seized Palestine, which belonged by 
right to Arpachshad. 
4 Cf. ix. 14, 15. 
1 i. 6. the angel who was present at the lot (viii. \o\. 

• Hamath marked the northern boundary of Israel. 
7 The extreme south. 


his wife's brother, and he dwelt in the land of Media, 
near to his wife's brother until this day. 36. And 
he called his dwelling-place, and the dwelling-place 
of his sons, Media, after the name of their father 

The History of the Patriarchs from Reu to 
Abraham (cf. Gen. xi, 20-30) ; the Corruption 
of the Human Race (xi. 1-15). 

1681 a.m. XI. And in the thirty-fifth jubilee, in the third 
week, in the first year thereof, Reu took to himself a 
wife, and her name was ' 6ra, the^ jjajighter^oIJillt* 
the son of K£s£d, and she" bare tiim a son, and he 

1687 a.m. called his name S&rdli, 1 in the seventh year of this 
week in this jubilee. 2.* A nd the sons of Noah began 
I to war on__garp other, t^ Takp raptive and to sla y 
\ each ofherTand to *h?fl * hf > blood ^ ™*n n n the earth. 
ancTto eat Slood, and to build strong cities, and walls, 
and towers, and individuals (began) to exalt them- 
selves above the nation,* and to found the beginnings 
of kingdoms, and to go to war people against people, 
and nation against nation, and city against city, and 
all (began) to do evil, and to acquire arms, and to 
teach their sons war, and they began to capture 
'cities, and to sell male and female slaves. 3. And 
'Or, the son of K6s6d, 4 built the city of 'Ara 5 of the 
Chaldees, and called its name after his own name and 
the name of his father. 4. And the y made for 
selves molten images, and they worshipp ed each the 
idol, the molten image which they had made for 
\themselves, and they began to make graven images 
ind unclean simulacra, and malignant spirits assisted 

1 Cf. Gen, xi. 20 f. (MT. has Strug for SirSh). 

* In 2-6 the corruption of mankind is ascribed to the 
period of Serug. 

• A note of hostility to monarchy. 

* The place name Ur Kasdxm {" Ur of the Chaldees ") is 
here transformed into the names of two persons, after whom 
the city is named. 

• i .#. Ur. 


chap, xi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 85 

knd seduced (them) into committing transgression 
land uncleanness. 5. And the prince Maste'ma exerted 
nimself to do all this, and he sent forth other spirits, 
those which were put under his hand, to do all manner 
of wrong and sin, and all manner of transgression, to 
corrupt and destroy, and to shed blood upon the 
earth. 1 6. For this reason he called the name of 
S6r6h, Serug, for every one turned to do all manner of 
sin and transgression. 7. And he grew up, and 
dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, near to the father of his 
wife's mother, and he worshipped idols, and he took 
to himself a wife in the thirty-sixth jubilee, in the 
fifth week, in the first year thereof, and her name was 
M glka,* the d au ghter of Ka b6r, the daughter of his 
fathers brother. 8. And she bare him Nahor, in 
the first year of this week, and he grew and dwelt in 
Ur of the Chaldees, and his father taught him the 
researches of the Chaldees to divine and augur, 
according to the signs of heaven. 9. And in the 
thirty-seventh jubilee, in the sixth week, in the first 
year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name 
was ' tjaska, 8 the daughter of Ne 'stag of the Chaldees. 
10. And she bare him Terah 4 ~Tntrie seventh year 
of this week. 11. And the prince Maste'ma sent 
ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown 
in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the 
children of men of their labours. Before they could 
plough in the seed, the ravens picked (it) from the 
surface of the ground. 12. And for this reason he 
called his name Terah, because the ravens and the 
birds reduced them to destitution and devoured their 
seed. 5 13. And the years began to be barren, owing 
to the birds, and they devoured all the fruit of the 

1 Cf. 1 Enoch xvi. 

' In Gen. xi. 29 Milcah is the name of the wife of Nahor, 
Abram'9 brother. 

1 = Iscah (cf. Gen. xi. 29; but there 8he is daughter of 

4 Cf. Gen. xi. 24. 

8 Apparently some play on the name Terah is involved 
in the original Hebrew,' but the explanation is uncertain. 

86 _THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xi 

trees Jrom the trees : it was only with great effort 
that they could save a little of all the fruit of the 

1 870 a.m. earth in their days. 14. And in this thirty-ninth 
jubilee, in the second week in the first year, Terah 
took to himself a wife, and her name was ' fcdna/ the 
dau ghter of 'AbramJ -the daughter of his" father's 

1876 a.m. sister? 15. And in the seventh year of this week she 
bare him a son, and he called his name Abram, by 
the name of the father of his mother ; for he had died 
before his daughter had conceived a son. 8 

Abram 's Knowledge of God and wonderful 

Deeds (xi. 16-24). 

16. And the child began to understand the errors 
of the earth that all went astray after graven images 
and after uncleanness, and his father taught him 
1 890 a.m. writing, and he was two weeks of years old, and he 
separated himself from his father, 4 that he might not 
worship idols with him. 17. And he began to pray 
to the Creator of all things that He might save him 
from the errors of the children of men, and that his 
portion should not fall into error after uncleanness and 
vileness. 18. And the seed time came for the sowing 
of seed upon the land, and they all went forth together 
to protect their seed against the ravens, and Abram 
went forth with those that went, and the child was a 
lad of fourteen years. 19. And a cloud of ravens 
came to devour the seed, and Abram ran to meet 
them before they settled on the ground, and cried to 
them before they settled on the ground to devour the 
seed, and said, " Descend not : return to the place 

1 According to the Talmud (Baba bathra gia) her name 
was Amthelai, daughter of Karnebo. 

* i. e. the grandfather of the Biblical Abram. 

1 It was customary to name a child after a grandfather. 
Here the child's name apparently perpetuates the memory 
of a grandfather who had died before the child was conceived. 

* This is the theme of much later Jewish legend. See 
especially the first part of the Apocalypse of Abraham, an 
edition of which appears in this series. Cf. xii. 1-14 below. 

chap, xi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 87 

whence ye came," and they proceeded to turn back. 
20. And he caused the clouds of ravens to turn back 
that day seventy times, and of all the ravens through- 
out all the land where Abram was there settled there 
not so much as one. 21. And all who were with him 
throughout all the land saw him cry out, and all 
the ravens turn back, and his name became great in 
all the land of the Chaldees. 22. And there came 
to him this year all those that wished to sow, and he 
went with them until the time of sowing ceased : 
and they sowed their land, and that year they brought 
enough grain home and ate and were satisfied. 23. 
And in the first year of the fifth week Abram taught 
those who made implements for oxen, the artificers 
in wood, and they made a vessel above the ground, 
facing the frame of the plough, 1 in order to put the 
seed thereon, and the seed fell down therefrom upon 
the share of the plough, and was hidden in the earth, 
and they no longer feared the ravens. 24. And 
after this manner they made (vessels) above the 
ground on all the frames of the ploughs, and they 
sowed and tilled all the land, according as Abram 
commanded them, and they no longer feared the 

Abram seeks to convert Terah from Idolatry ; 
the Family of Terah (cf. Gen. xi. 27-30). 
Abram burns the Idols. Death of Haran 
(cf. Gen. xi. 28) (xii. 1-14). 

XII. And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the 
seventh year thereof, that Abram said to Terah his 
father, saying, " Father 1 " And he said, " Behold, 
here am I, my son." 2. And he said, 

1 An improved method of sowing by means of a sced- 
scatterer attached to the plough (Arab, biik) is here described. 
This marked an advance on the primitive method of scatter- 
ing the seed by hand, and its invention is ascribed to Abraham. 
In Rabbinical tradition Noah is the inventor of the plough 
and kindred instruments. Cf. Krauss, Talmudische Atchjo- 
ogxe, ii. 553 (note 151). 

88 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xn 

"What help and profit have we from those idols 
which thou dost worship, 
And before which thou dost bow thyself ? * 

3. For there is rio spirit in them, 2 

For they aire dumb forms, and a misleading of the 

he. art. 
Worship them not : 

4. Worship the God of heaven, 

Who causeth the rain and the dew to descend on the 

earth, 8 
And doeth everything upon the earth, 

And hath created everything by His word, 4 
• And all life is from before His face. 

5. Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in 

For they are the work of (men's) hands, 6 

And on your shoulders do ye bear them,* 
And ye have no help from them, 

But they are a great cause of shame to those who 

make them, 
And a misleading of the heart to those who worship 

them : 
Worship them not." 

6. And his father said unto him, " I also know it, 
my son, but what shall I do with a people who have 
made me to serve before them ? 7. And if I tell them 
the truth, they will slay me ; for their soul cleaveth 

1 In 1-14 we have an early form of the legend of Abram's 
protest against idolatry. This section has remarkable 
parallels, both in thought and expression, with chaps, i.-viii. 
of the Apocalypse of Abraham. In the later (Rabbinic) 
forms of the legend Abram's birth excites the alarm of 
Nimrod, who endeavours to destroy him in a furnace of 

a . Cf. Ps. exxxv. 17. • Cf. xx. 9; Jer. xiv. 22. 

4 Cf. Ps. xxxiii. 6; Heb. xi. 3 ; 2 Pet. iii. 5; 4 Ezra vi. 38. 

• Cf. Jer. x. 3, 9. 

• Cf- Jsa. xlvi. 7; Jer. x. 5; Assumpt. Moses, viii. 4. 

chap, xii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 89 

to them to worship them and honour them. Keep 
silent, 1 my son, lest they slay thee." 8. And these 
words he spake to his two brothers, and they were 
angry with him and he kept silent. 9. And in the 
fortieth jubilee, in the second week, in the seventh 1925 
year thereof, Abram took to himself a wife, and her 
name was Sarai, the daughter of his father, and she 
became his wife. 1 10. And Haran, his brother, took 
to himself a wife in the third year of the third week, 
and she bare him a son in the seventh year of this 1932 
week and he called his name Lot. 11. And Nahor, 
his brother, took to himself a wife. 8 12. And in the 
sixtieth year of the life of Abram, that is, in the J 93 6 
fourth week, in the fourth year thereof, Abram arose 
by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he 
burned all that was in the house, and no man knew 
it. 13. And they arose in the night and sought to 
save their gods from the midst of the fire. 14. And 
Haran hasted to save them, but the fire flamed over 
him, and he was burnt in the fire, and he died in Ur 
of the Chaldees before Terah his father, and they 
buried him in Ur of the Chaldees. 4 

The Family of Terah in Haran ; Abram 's 
Experiences there ; his Journey to Canaan 

(xii. 15-31 ; cf. Gen. xi, 31-xii. 3). * 

15. And Terah went forth from Ur of the Chaldees, 
he and his sons, to go into the land of Lebanon and 
into the land of Canaan, and he dwelt in the land of 
Haran, and Abram, dwelt with Terah his father in 

1 In Ap. Abraham Terah is indignant with Abraham for 
deriding the idols. 

* Cf. Gen. xx. 12, according to which Sarah was Abraham's 
half-sister. According to Rabbinic tradition marriage with 
half-sisters on the father's side was permitted to the descen- 
dants of Noah. In Lev. xviii. 9, II, xx. 17, marriage with 
a sister or half-sister is strictly forbidden. 

* According to Gen. xi. 29, Milcah. 

* In Ap. Abraham, viii. the fire descends from heaven and 
burns the house and all in it (including Terah). Only Abraham 

90 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xii 

Haran two weeks of years. 1 16. And in the sixth 
1951 a.m. week, in the fifth year thereof, Abram sat up through- 
out the night on the new moon of the seventh month 
to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, 
in order to see what would be the character of the 
year with regard to the rains, and he was alone as he 
sat and observed. 17. And a word came into his 
heart and he said : " All the signs of the stars, and the 
signs of the moon and of the sun are all in the hand 
of the Lord. Why do I search (them) out ? 

18. If He desireth, He causeth it to rain, morning 

and evening ; 
And if He desireth, He withholdeth it, 
And all things are. in His hand.'"' 

19. And he prayed that night and said 

" My God, 6od Most High, Thou alone art my 
And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. 

And Thou hast created all things, 

And all things that are are the work of Thy hands. 

20. Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have 

sway over the thoughts of men's hearts, 
And let them not lead me astray from Thee, my 

And stablish Thou me and my seed for ever 
That we go not astray from henceforth and for 


21. And he said, " Shall I return unto Ur of the Chal- 
dees who seek my face that I may return to them, or 
am I to remain here in this place? The right path 
before Thee prosper it in the hands of Thy servant 
that he may fulfil (it) and that I may not walk in the 
deceitfulness of my heart, O my God." 22. And he 
made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the 
word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying : 
11 Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred 
and from the house of thy father unto a land which 
I shall show thee, and I shall make thee a great and 
numerous nation. 

1 Cf. Gen. xi. 31. 

chap, xii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 91 

23. And I shall bless thee 

And I shall make thy name great, 

And thou wilt be blessed in the earth, 

And in thee will all families of the earth be blessed, 

And I shall bless them that bless thee, 
And curse them that curse thee. 1 

24. And I shall be a God to thee and thy son, and to 
thy son's son, and to all thy seed : fear not, from 
henceforth and unto all generations of the earth I 
am thy God." 25. And the Lord God said : " Open 
his mouth and his ears, that he may hear and speak 
with his mouth, with the language which hath been 
revealed " ; a for it had ceased from the mouths of all 
the children of men from the day of the overthrow 
(of Babel). 26. And 1 8 opened his mouth, and his 
ears and his lips, and I began to speak with him in 
Hebrew in the tongue of the creation. 27. And he 

jtook the book sof his fathers , and these were written 
irHkebrew, and he transcribed them, and he began 
f rom henceforth to study them, a nd I mad<T"known 
to him that which he could not (understand), and he 
studied them during the six rainy months. 4 28. And 
it came to pass in the seventh year of the sixth week 
that he spoke to his father, and informed him that 
he would leave Haran to go into the land of Canaan 
to see it and return to him. 29. And Terah his 
father said unto him ; " Go in peace : 

May the eternal God make thy path straight, 

And the Lord [(be) with thee, and] protect thee 
from all evil, 

And grant unto thee grace, mercy and favour 
before those who see thee, 

And may none of the children of men have power 
over thee to harm thee ; 

Go in peace. 

1 Cf. Gen. xii. 1-3 (cf. Acts vii. 3). 

* t. e. the sacred language, Hebrew, knowledge of which 
had been lost since the overthrow of Babel. According to 
another tradition Heber alone retained knowledge of Hebrew 
because he had taken no part in the building of the Tower. 

■ The angel is the speaker. 4 i. e. the winter. 

92 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xif 

30. And if thou seest a land pleasant to thy eyes to 
dwell in, then arise and take me to thee and take Lot 
with thee, the son of Haran thy brother, as thine 
own son : the Lord be with thee. 31. And Nahor 
thy brother leave with me till thou returnest in 
peace, and we go with thee all together." 

Abram with Lot in Canaan and Egypt (cf. Gen. 
xii. 4-20). Abram separates from Lot (cf. 
Gen. xiii. n-18) (xiii. 1-21). 

XIII. And Abram journeyed from Haran, and he 
took Sarai, his wife, and Lot, his brother Hara ss 
son , to the land of Canaan , and he came into t Asshurt. 1 
and proceeded to Shechem, and dwelt near a lofty 
aaj^f 2. And he saw, and, behold, the land was very 
'pleasant from the entering of Hamath to the lofty. 
oak. 3. And the Lord said to him ; " To "thee and 
to thy seed will I give this land." 4. And he built 
an altar there, and he offered thereon a burnt sacrifice 
to the Lord, who had appeared to him. 5. Antf 
he removed from thence unto the mountain . . .• 
Bethel on the west and Ai on the east, and pitched 
his tent there. 4 6. And he saw. and behold, the land 
was very wide and good, and everything grew thereon 
— vines and figs and pomegranates, oaks and ilexes, 
and terebinths and oil trees, and cedars and cypresses 
and date trees, and all trees of the field, and there 
was water on the mountains. 7. And he blessed 
the Lord who had led him out of Ur of the Chaldees, 
and had brought him to this land. 8. And it came 
1954 A.M. to p ass in the first year, in the seventh week, on. the. 
nrw^mooh of the first month, that he built an altar 
-on this mountain, and called on (he name of the Lord ; 
" Thou, the eternal God, art my God." 6 9. And he 
offered on the altar a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord 

1 Corrupt. Read probably Canaan. 

» For 1 cf. Gen. xii. 5-6. For " lofty oak " (so LXX) 
MT has " oak oi Moreh." 

• Supply t ?) " to the east of Bethel with " (Charles). 
« For 3-5 X cf. Gen. xii. 7. 8. » Cf. Gen. xii. 8. 

chap, xin] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 93 

that He should be with him and not forsake him all 
the days of his life. 10. And he removed from thence 
and went towards the south, 1 and he came to Hebron, 
and Hebron was built at that time, and he dwelt 
there two years, and he went (thence) into the land of 
the south, to Bealoth, 2 and there was a famine in the 
land. 11. And Abraui went into Egypt ■ in the third 
year of the week, and he dwelt in Egypt five years 
before his wife was torn away from him. 12. Now 
Tanais 4 in Egypt was at that time built — seven 
years after Hebron. 5 13. And it came to pass when 
Pharaoh seized Sarai, the wife of Abram, that the 
Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great 
plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife. 14. And 
Abram wab very gionous by reason of possessions 
in sheep, and cattle, and asses, and horses, and 
camels, and menservants, and maidservants, and in 
silver and gold exceedingly. And Lot also, his 
brother's son, was wealthy. 15. And Pharaoh gave 
back Sarai, the wife of Abram, and he sent him out 
of the land of Egypt, 6 and he journeyed to the place 
where he had pitched his tent at the beginning, to the 
place of the altar, with Ai on the east, and Bethel on 
the west, and he blessed the Lord his God who had 
brought him back in peace. 7 16. And it came to 
pass in the forty-first jubilee, in the third year of the 
first week, that he returned to this place and offered 
thereon a burnt sacrifice, and called on the name of the 
Lord, and said : " Thou, the most high God, art my 
God for ever and ever." 8 17. And in the fourth year 
01 this week Lot parted from him, and Lot dwelt in 
Sodom, and the men of Sodom were sinners exceed- 
ingly. 9 18. And it grieved him in his heart that his 
brother's son had parted from him ; for he had no 

1 Cf. Gen. xii. 9. 'A town in S. judah (Josh. xv. 24). 

• Cf. Gen. xii. 10. 4 i.e. Zoan. • Cf. Num. xiii. 22. 

• For 13-150 cf. Gen. xii. 15-20 (note that Gen. xii. 18 is 

7 Cf. Gen. xiii. 3-4. 8 Cf. 8 above. 

• Cf. Gen. xiii. 11, 13. 

94 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xiii 

children, io. 1 In that year when Lot was taken 
captive, the Lord said unto Abram, after that Lot had 
parted from him, in the fourth year of this week : 
' Lift up thine eyes from the place where thou art 
dwelling, northward and southward, and westward 
and eastward. 20. For all the land which thou 
seest I shall give to thee and to thy seed for ever, and 
I shall make thy seed as the sand of the sea : * though 
a man may number the dust of the earth, yet thy 
seed shall not be numbered. 8 21. Arise, walk (through 
the land) in the length of it and the breadth of it, and 
see it all; for to thy seed shall I give it." And Abram 
went to Hebron, and dwelt there. 

The Campaign of Chedorlaomer (xiii. 22-29; 
cf. Gen. xhO. 

22. AnbTTn this year came Chedorlaomer, king of 
Elam, >and Amraphel, king of Shinar, and Arioch, 
king of S&l'asar, 4 and Tfirgal,* king of nations, and 
slew the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Sodom 
fled, and many fell through wounds in the vale of 
Siddim, by the Salt Sea. 23. And they took captive 
Sodom and Adam • and Zeboim, and they took cap- 
tive Lot also, the son of Abram's brother, and all his 
possessions, and they went to Dan. 7 24. And one 
who had escaped came and told Abram that his 
brother's son had been taken captive and (Abram) 
armed 8 his household servants. 25. . . . . . 

. jor Abram, and for his seed, a 

For 10-21 cf. Gen. xiii. 14A-18. 

Cf. Gen. xxii. 17 (Gen. xiii. 16 has " as the dust of the 
earth "). 

" So that if a man can number . . . then shall thy seed 
also be numbered " (Gen. xiii. 16). 

MT Ellasar. 

MT Tidal (for form here cf. LXX Gapydk). 

i. e. Admah. 

Cf. Gen. xiv. 14. 

R.V. "led forth"; the rendering "armed" has the 
support of the Targum Onkelos. 

chap, xiii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 95 

tenth of the first-fruits to the Lord, 1 and the Lord 
ordained it as an ordinance for ever that they should 
give it to the priests who served before Him, that 
they should possess it for ever. 1 26. And to this 
law there is no limit of days ; for He hath ordained 
it for the generations for ever that they should give 
to the Lord the tenth of everything, of the seed and 
of the wine and of the oil and of the cattle and of the 
sheep. 27. And He gave (it) unto His priests to 
eat and to drink with joy before Him. 28. And the 
king of Sodom came to him and bowed himself before 
liim, and said : " Our Lord Abram, give unto us the 
4 souls which thou hast rescued, but let the booty be 
thine." 29. And Abram said unto him : " I lift 
up my hands to the Most High God, that from a 
thread to a shoe-latchet I shall not take aught that is 
thine, lest thou shouldst say I have made Abram 
rich; save only what the young men have eaten, 
and the portion of the men who went with me — 
Aner, Eschol, and Mamre. These will take their 
portion." 8 

God's Covenant with Abram (xiv. 1-20 ; 
cf. Gen. xv.). 

XIV. 4 After these things/in the fourth year of this 
week, on the new moon of the th i rd month^ the word 
of the Lord came to Abram in a dream, saying : 
" Fear not, Abram ; I am thy defender, and thy 
reward will be exceeding great." 2. And he said : 
11 Lord, Lord, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go 

1 Charles suspects a lacuna at the beginning of 25. It no 
doubt contained an account of the pursuit of the kings and 
told of Melchizedek (cf. Gen. xiv. 15-20). That Abraham 
should have given tithes to Melchizedek (who was uncircum- 
cised) was a difficulty to later Jews (cf. Justin, Trypho xix.). 
One way of overcoming it was to identify Melchizedek with 

1 The law about tithes is made to apply for the Levitical 
/ priesthood; cf. xxxii. 15. 

' For 28-29 cf. Gen. xiv. 21-24. 

4 For 1-6 cf. Gen. xv. 1-6. 

96 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xiv 

hence childless, and the son of Mas^q, 1 the son of 

my handmaid, is the Dammasek Eliezer : he will be 

my heir, and to me thou hast given no seed." 3. And 

He said unto him : " This (man) will not be thy heir, 

but one that will come out of thine own bowels ; 

he will be thine heir." 4. And He brought him 

forth abroad, and said unto him : " Look toward 

heaven and number the stars, if thou art able to 

number them." 5. And he looked toward heaven, 

and beheld the stars. And He said unto him : 

" So shall thy seed be." 6. And he believed in the 

Lord, and it was counted to him for righteousness. 

7. And He said unto him : "I am the Lord that 

Drought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee 

the land of the Canaanites to possess it for ever; 

and I shall be God unto thee and to thy seed after 

thee." 1 8. And he said: "Lord, Lord, whereby 

shall I know that I shall inherit (it) ? " 9. And he 

said unto him : ." Take Me an heifer of three years, 

and a goat of three years, and a sheep of three years, 

and a turtle-dove, and a pigeon." 8 10. And he took 

all these in the middle of the month ; and he dwelt 

at the oak of Mamre, which is near Hebron. 4 II. And 

he built there an altar, and sacrificed all these ; and 

he poured their blood upon the altar, and divided 

them in the midst, and laid them over against each 

other; but the birds divided he not. 12. And birds 

came down upon the pieces, and Abram drove them 

away, and did not suffer the birds to touch them. 5 

13. And it came to pass, when the sun had set, that 

an ecstasy fell upon Abram, and lo ! an horror of 

great darkness fell upon him, and it was said unto 

Abram : " Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a 

stranger in a land (that is) not theirs, and they will 

bring them into bondage, and afflict them foji*- 

1 Wrongly taken as a proper narne (cf. R.V.). So LXX. 

* Cf. Gen. xv. 7. 

• For &-9 cf. Gen. xv. 6-9. 
4 Cf. Gen. xiv. 13. 

1 For 11-12 cf. Gen. xv. 10-11. 


hundred years. l _ 14. And the nation also to whom 
they will be in bondage shall I judge, and after that 
they will come forth thence with much substance. 
15. And thou wilt go to thy fathers in peace, and be 
buried in a good old age. 16. But in the fourth 
generation * they will return hither ; for the iniquity 
of the Amorites is not yet full." s 17. And he awoke 
from his sleep, and he arose, and the sun had set ; 
and there was a flame, and behold 1 a furnace was 
smoking, and a flame of fire passed between the pieces. 

18. And on that day the Lord made a covenant with 
Abram, saying : " To thy seed will I give this land, 
from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river 
Euphrates, the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kad- 
monites, the Perizzites, and the Rephaim, the Phakor- 
ites, 4 and the Hivites, 5 and the Amorites, and the 
Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites." 6 

19. And the day passed, and Abram offered the pieces, 
and the birds, and their fruit -offerings, and their drink- 
offerings, and the fire devoured them. 20. And on 
that day 7 we made a covenant with Abram, according 
as we had covenanted with Noah i n this _ month ; 8 
and Abram renewed the festival and ordinance for 
himself for ever. 

1 Cf. Gen. xv. 13, but Exod. xii. 40 gives the number 430. 
Tradition assumes that the number includes the sojourn of 
the Patriarchs in Canaan. Our text reckons the period from 
the birth of Isaac (when Abraham was 100 years old). St. 
Paul (Gal. iii. 16-17) reckons 430 years from the announce- 
ment. According to Targ. Ps.-Jon. on Exod. xii. 40 f., the 
odd 30 years cover the period between the announcement 
and Isaac's birth. 

• A generation = 100 years. Isaac was born when Abra- 
ham was 100 years old (Gen. xxi. 5). 

• For 13-16 cf. Gen. xv. 12-16. 

4 Absent from MT (which inserts " Hittite " before " Periz- 
tite "). 

• So LXX and Sam. here (Gen. xv. 20) ; but MT, Syr. and 
Vulg. omit. 

• For 17-18 cf. Gen. xv. 17-21. 
' t. e. the 15th of Sivan. 

■ Probably, according to our author, on the same day of 
the month. 


The Birth of Ishmael (xiv. 21-24; c ^« G^ n - 
xvi. 1-4. 11). 

21. And Abram rejoiced, and made all these things 
known to Sarai his wife ; and he believed that he 
would have seed, but she did not bear. 22. And 
Sarai advised her husband Abram, and said unto him : 
" Go in unto Hagar, my Egyptian maid : it may 
be that I shall build up seed unto thee by her. ' 
23. And Abram hearkened unto the voice of Sarai 
his wife, and said unto her, "Do (so)." And Sarai 
took Hagar, her maid, the Egyptian, and gave her 
to Abram, her husband, to be his wife. 24. And 
he went in unto her, and she conceived and bare 
him a son, and he called his name Ishmael, in the 
r^65 a.m. fifth year of this week ; and this was the eighty-sixth 
year in the life of Abram. 

The Feast of First-fruits. Circumcision in- 
stituted. The Promise of Isaac's Birth. 
Circumcision ordained for all Israel (xv. 
1-34; cf. Gen. xvii.). 

XV. And in the fifth year of the ffourthf 1 week of 
this jubilee, in t he third month, in the middle of 
the month, 8 Abram celebrated the feast of the first- 
fruitS* ot trie grain harvest. 2. And he offered new 
offerings on the altar, the first-fruits of the produce, 
unto the Lord, an heifer and a goat and a sheep on 
the altar as a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord ; their 
fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings he offered 
upon the altar with frankincense. 4 3. And the Lord 
appeared to Abram, and said unto him : " I am God 
Almighty ; approve thyself before Me and be thou 
perfect. 4. And I will make My covenant between 

1 Read " third." ■ i. e. the 15th of Sivan. 

* i. e. the Feast of Weeks. The Pharisees celebrated this 
feast not on Sivan 15th, but on Sivan 6th. See further 

4 Cf. xiv. 9. The offerings prescribed for this festival in 
Lev. xxiii. 1&-20 are different. 

chap, xv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 99 

Me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly." l 
5.' And Abram fell on his face, and God talked with 
him, and said : 

6. " Behold My ordinance is with thee, 

And thou wilt be the father of many nations. 

7. Neither will thy name any more be called Abram, 
But thy name from henceforth, even for ever, 

shall be Abraham. 
For the father of many nations have I made thee. 

8. And I shall make thee very great, 
And I shall make thee into nations, 
And kings will come forth from thee. 

9. And I shall establish My covenant between Me and 
thee, and thy seed after thee, throughout their 
generations, for an eternal covenant, so that I may 
be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. 10. 
(And I shall give to thee and to thy seed after thee) 8 
the land where thou hast been a sojourner, the land 
of Canaan, that thou mayst possess it for ever, and I 
shall be their God." II. 1 And the Lord said unto 
Abraham : " And as for thee, do thou keep My 
Covenant, thou and thy seed after thee ; and circum- 
cise ye every male among you, and circumcise your 
foresKins, and it will be a token of an eternal covenant 
between Me and you. 12. And the child on the 
eighth day 6 ye will circumcise, every male throughout 
your generations, him that is born in the house, or 
whom ye have bought with money from any stranger, 
whom ye have acquired who is not of thy seed. 13. 
He that is born in thy house will surely be circum- 
cised, and those whom thou hast bought with money 
will be circumcised, and My covenant will be in your 

1 For 3-4 cf. Gen. xvii. i f. 

• For 5-10 cf. Gen. xvii. 3-8. 

• The bracketed words (lost through homoioteleuton) are 
restored from Gen. xvii. 8. 

4 For 11-13 cf. Gen. xvii. 0-13. 

• MT has " and the child of eight days" Our text here 
may be a deliberate alteration. 

loo THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xv 

flesh for an eternal ordinance. 14. 1 And the uncir- 
cumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of 
his foreskin on the eighth day,* that soul will be cut . 
off from his people, for he hath broken My covenant." 
I5. a And God said unto Abraham : "As for Sarai 
thy wife, her name will no more be called Sarai, but 
Sarah will be her name. 16. And I shall bless her, 
and give thee a son by her, and I shall bless him, 4 and 
he will become a nation, and kings of nations will 
proceed from him." 17. And Abraham fell on his 
face, and rejoiced, and said in his heart : " Shall a 
son be born to him that is a hundred years old, and 
shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bring forth ? " 
18. And Abraham said unto God : " O that Ishmael 
might live before thee I " 19. And God said : " Yea, 
and Sarah also will bear thee a son, and thou wilt call 
his name Isaac, and I shall establish My covenant 
with him, an everlasting covenant, and for his seed 
after him. 20. And as for Ishmael also have I heard 
thee, and behold I shall bless him, and make him great, 
and multiply him exceedingly, and he will Deget 
twelve princes, and I shall make him a great nation. 
21. But My covenant shall I establish with Isaac, 
whom Sarah will bear to thee, in these days, in the 
next year." 22. And He left off speaking with him, 
and God went up from Abraham. 23.* And Abraham 
did according as God had said unto him, and he took 
Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, 
and whom he had bought with his money, every male 
in his house, and circumcised the flesh of their fore- 

1 For 14 cf. Gen. xvii. 14. 

* The words on the eighth day are absent from the text oi 
Gen. xvii. 14, in MT, Syr. and Vulg., but are attested by the 
LXX and Sam. The strict rule about the eighth day was 
later relaxed among the Jews, but is still practised by the 

• For 15-22 cf. Gen. xvii. 15-22. 

* So LXX, Sam., Syr. and Vulg. of Gen. xvii. 22. But 
MT makes the text refer to Sarah (" yea, I will bless her, 
[and she shall be a mother of nations : kings of peoples shall 
be of her]/' R.V.). 

• For 23-24 cf. Gen. xvii. 23-27. 

chap, xv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 101 

skin. 24. And on the selfsame day 1 was Abraham 
circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those 
born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought 
with money from the children of the stranger, were 
circumcised with, him. 25. This law is for all the 
generations for ever, and there is no circumcision 
of the days, 1 and no omission of one day out of the 
eight days;* for it is an eternal ordinance, ordained 
and written on the heavenly tables. 26. And every 
one that is born, the flesh of whose foreskin is not 
circumcised on * the eighth day, belongeth not to the 
children of the covenant which the Lord made with 
Abraham, but to the children of destruction ; nor 
is there, moreover, any sign on him that he is the 
Lord's, but (he is destined) to be destroyed and slain 
from the earth, and to be rooted out of the earth, 
for he hath broken the covenant of the Lord our God. 
27. For all the angels of the presence and all the 
angels of sanctification 5 have been so created 6 from 
the day of their creation, and before the angels of 
the presence and the angels of sanctification He hath 
sanctified Israel, that they should be with Him and 
with His holy angels. 28. And do thou command 
the children of Israel and let them observe the sign 
of this covenant for their generations as an eternal 
ordinance, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 
29. For the command is ordained for a covenant, 
that they should observe it for ever among all the 
children of Israel. 30. For Ishmael and his sons and 
his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to 
approach Him, and he chose them not because they 
are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, 
but He chose Israel to be His people. 31. And He 

1 i. e. the 15th of Sivan. 

1 i. t. ? of the days preceding the eighth day. 

• Only on the eighth day is the rite to be performed. 
4 Ethiop. MSS. and Lat. have " till." 

• The two highest orders of angels, who share with Israel 
the privilege of observing the Sabbath (cf. ii. 18-21). and of 
being circumcised. 

• t. «. have been created circumcised. 

102 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xv 

sanctified it, and gathered it from amongst all the 
children of men 1 ; for there are many nations and 
many peoples, and all are His, and over all hath He 
placed spirits in authority to lead them astray a from 
Him. 32. But over Israel He .did not appoint any 
angel or spirit, for He alone is their ruler, and He 
will preserve them and require them at the hand 
of His angels and His spirits, and at the hand of all 
His powers in order that He may preserve them and 
bless them, and that they may be His and He 
may be theirs from henceforth tor ever. 33. And 
now I announce unto thee that the children of 
Israel will not keep true to this ordinance, and 
they will not circumcise their sons according to 
all this law ; for in the flesh of their circumcision 
they will omit this circumcision of their sons, 
and all of them, sons of Beliar, 3 will leave their 
sons uncircumcised as they were born. 4 34. And 
there will be great wrath from the Lord against the 
children of Israel, because they have forsaken His 
covenant and turned aside from His word, and pro- 
voked and blasphemed, inasmuch as they do not 
observe the ordinance of this law ; for they have 
treated their members like the Gentiles, so that they 
may be removed and rooted out of the land. And 
there will no more be pardon or forgiveness unto 
them [so that there should be forgiveness and pardon] 
for all the sin of this eternal error. 

1 Israel is God's portion; cf. Deut. xxxii. 8-9 in the LXX 
form of which " angels " is read instead of " children of 
Israel"; cf. also Ecclus. xvii. 17. The "seventy nations 
of the earth were placed under the dominion of seventy 
angels"; but in Dan. x. 13, 20, 21, xii. 1, Michael is 
referred to as Israel's angel-prince. 

■ This describes the result, not the original purpose of their 

• In i. 20 (see note). Beliar is clearly a Satanic being. 
This meaning may possibly be present in the use of the 
expression here. " Sons of Belial " is common in the O.T. 
(ex! e. g. 1 Sam. ii. 12). 

' Apparently such apostasy was widely spread when our 
author wrote. 



chap, xvi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 103 

Angelic Visitation of Abraham in Hebron ; 
Promise of Isaac's Birth repeated. The 
Destruction of Sodom and 'Lot's Deliver- 
ance (xvi. 1-9; cf. Gen. xviii. -xix.). 

XVI. And on the new moon of \ h e f fourth mnn fh 
we l appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, 
and we talked with him, and we announced to him 
that a son would be given to him by Sarah his wife. 2 
2. And Sarah laughed, for she heard that we had 
spoken these words with Abraham, and we admon- 
ished her, and she became afraid, and denied that she 
had laughed on account of the words. 8 3. And we 
told her the name of her son, as his name is ordained 
and written in the heavenly tables (i.e.) Isaac. 4. And 
(that) when we returned to her at a set time, she would 
have conceived a son. 5. And in lhis_ month the 
Lord executed his judgments on Sodom, and Go- 
morrah, and Zeboim, 4 and all the region of the Jordan, 
and He burned them with fire and brimstone, and 
destroyed them until this day, even as [lo] I have 
declared unto thee all their works, that they are 
wicked and sinners exceedingly, and that they defile 
themselves and commit fornication in their flesh, 
and work uncleanness on the earth. 6 6. And, in 
like manner, God will execute judgment on the places 
where they have done according to the uncleanness 
of the Sodomites, like unto the judgment of Sodom. 

7. But Lot we saved ; for God remembered Abraham, 
and sent him out from the midst of the overthrow. 

8. And he and his daughters committed sin upon the 
earth, such as had not been on the earth since the 
days of Adam till his time ; for the man lay with 
his daughters. 8 9. And, behold, it was commanded 
and engraven concerning all his seed, on the heavenly 
tables, to remove them and root them out, and to 

1 t. e. the angels. 

* For 1 cf. Gen. xviii. 1, 10 (vers. 2-9 omitted). 

Cf. Gen. xviii. 10, 12, 15. 4 Cf. Gen. xiv. 2, 8. 

• For 5 cf. Gen. xix. 24. • For 7-8 cf. Gen. xix. 29, 31 ff . 

104 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xvi 

execute judgment upon them like the judgment of 
Sodom, and to leave no seed of the man on earth on 
the day of condemnation. 

Abraham at Beersheba. Birth and Circum- 
cision of Jsaac (cf. Gen. xxi. 1-4). Institu- 
tion or the Feast of Tabernacles (xvi. 10-31). 

10. And jn this month Abraham moved from 
Hebron, and departed and dwelt between Kadesh 
and Shur in the mountains l of Gerar. II. And in 
the middle of the fifth mouth lie moved from thence, 
and dwelt at the Well of the Oath.' 12. 8 And in 
the middle of_the_sixth monlh the Lord visited Sarah 
and did unto her as He had spoken, and she conceived. 
980 a.m. 13. And<she bare a son in the third month and in the 
middle of the month. 4 at the time ol which the Lord 
had spoken to Abraham, on the festival of the first- 
fruits of the harvest, 8 Isaac was born. 14. And 
Abraham circumcised his son on the eighth day : he 
was the first that was circumcised according to the 
covenant which is ordained for ever. 15. And in 
the sixth year of the f fourth f 6 week we came to 
Abraham, to the Well of the Oath, and we appeared 
unto him [as we had told Sarah that we should return 
to her, and she would have conceived a son. 16. And 
we returned in the seventh month, and found Sarah 
with child before us] 7 and we blessed him, and we 
announced to him all the things which had been 
decreed concerning him, that he should not die till 
he should beget six sons more, 8 and should see (them) 
before he died ; but (that) in Isaac should his name 
and seed be called : • 17. And (that) all the seed of 
his sons should be Gentiles, and be reckoned with the 
Gentiles ; but from the sons of Isaac one should 

1 Or " territories." • i. e. Beersheba; cf. Gen. xxi. 31. 

• For 12-14 cf. Gen. xxi. 1-4. * i. e. the isth of Sivan. 

• i. e. Pentecost. • Read ' third ' as in xv. T ^Charres"). 
7 The bracketed words are an incorrect gloss, according to 

Charles, and should be omitted. 

1 Six sons by Keturah (Gen. xxv. 2). • Cf. Gen. xxi. 12. 

• « : 

chap, xvi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 1 105 

v ' become a holy seed, and should not be reckoned among 
? " the Gentiles.* 18, For he should become the portion 
, • of the Most High, 1 and all his seed had fallen into the 
possession of God, that it should be unto the Lord a 
people for (His) possession 8 above all nations and 
that it should become a kingdom and priests and a 
holy nation. 4 19. And we went our way, and we 
• announced to Sarah all that we had told him, and 
they both rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 20. And 
he built there an altar to the Lord who had delivered 
him, and who was making him rejoice in the land 
— of his sojourning, and he celebrated a festival of joy 
in this month seven days, 5 near the altar which he 
had built at the Well of the Oath. ax. And he built 
booths for himself and for his servants on this festival, 
and he was the first to celebrate the feast of taber- 
nacles on the earth. 22. And during these seven 
days he brought each day to the altar a burnt- 
offering to the Lord, two oxen,* two rams, seven 
sheep/ one he-goat, for a sin-offering, that he might 
atone thereby for himself and for his seed. 23. And, 
as a thank-offering, seven rams, seven kids, seven 
sheep, and seven he-goats, and their fruit-offerings 
and their drink-offerings ; 8 and he burnt all the fat 
thereof on the altar, a chosen offering unto the Lord 
for a sweet smelling savour. 24. And morning and 
evening he burnt fragrant substances,* frankincense 

1 All Abraham's descendants, except Jacob and his seed, 
were to be reckoned among the Gentiles. 

» Cf. xv. 31 f. 

■ Cf. Deut. vii. 6; Exod. xix. 5. 
i * Cf. Exod. xix. 6 (MT has " a kingdom of priests "); cf. 

Rev. v. 10, i. 6, which agree with our text substantially, and 
this may be the original sense. See Introduction, p. xxxii. 

• In 20-31 we have an account of the Feast of Tabernacles 
which is marked by peculiar features. 

• According to Num. xxix. 13-33 thirteen bullocks were 
sacrificed the first day, and this number was diminished by 
one each day following. 

7 In Num. xxix. 13 fourteen he-lambs. 

• Cf. 2 Chron. xxix. 21. 

• Cf. Exod. xxx. 34; Ecclus. xxiv. 15. 

io6 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xvi 

and galbanum, and stacte, and nard, and myrrh, 
and spice, and costum ; all these seven he offered, 
crushed, mixed together in equal parts (and) pure. 

25. And he celebrated this feast during seven days, 
rejoicing with all his heart and with all his soul, he 
and all those who were in his house; and there was 
no stranger with him, nor any that was uncircumcised. 

26. And he blessed his Creator who had created him 
in his generation, for He had created him according 
to His good pleasure ; for He knew and perceived 

^ — that from him Avould arise the plant of righteousness * , 
for the eternal generations, and irom him a holy 

seed, so that it should become like Him who had made 
all things. ' 27. And he blessed and rejoiced, and he 
called the name of this festival the festival of the 
Lord, a joy acceptable to the Most High God. 28. 
And we blessed him for ever, and all his seed after him 
throughout all the generations of the earth, because 
he celebrated this festival in its season, according 
to the testimony of the heavenly tables. 29. For 
this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tables 
concerning Israel, that they shall celebrate the feast of 
tabernacles seven days with joy, in the seventh 
month, acceptable before the Lord — a statute for 
ever throughout their generations every year. 2 30. 
And to this there is no limit of days ; for it is ordained 
for ever regarding Israel that they should celebrate 
it and dwell in booths, and set wreaths upon their 
heads, 3 and take leafy boughs, and willows from the 
brook. 4 31. And Abraham took branches of palm 
trees, and the fruit of goodly trees, and every day 
going round the altar with the branches seven times * 

1 Cf. xxi. 24; 1 Enoch x. 16, xciii. 5, 10. 

* Cf. Lev. xxiii. 41 . 

* This custom in connection with Tabernacles seems to 
be unknown to tradition ; cf ., however, Wisdom ii. 7 f. ; 
Josephus, Ant. xix. 9, 1. Bridegrooms wore wreaths, but the 
custom was later abolished. See further Introduction, p. xx f. 

4 Cf. Lev. xxiii. 40. 

* According to later Jewish tradition it was only on the 
seventh day that the worshippers went round the altar seven 

chap, xvi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 107 

[a day] in the morning, he praised and gave thanks to 
his God for all things in joy. 

The Expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael (xvii. 1-14 ; 
cf. Gen. xxi. 8-21). 

XVII. And in the first year of the ffiftht l week 1982 
Isaac was weaned in this jubilee, and Abraham made 
a great banquet in the third month , on the day his 
son Isaac was weaned. "* 2. And Ishmael, the son 
of Hagar, the Egyptian, was before the face of Abra- 
ham, his father, in his place, and Abraham rejoiced 
and blessed God because he had seen his sons 3 and 
had not died childless. 3. And he remembered 
the words which He had spoken to him on the day on 
which Lot had parted from him, and he rejoiced be- 
cause the Lord had given him seed upon the earth 
to inherit the earth, and he blessed with all his mouth 
the Creator of all things. 4 4. 5 And Sarah saw Ish- 
mael playing and dancing, 9 and Abraham rejoicing 
with great joy, and she became jealous of Ishmael 
and said to Abraham, " Cast out this bondwoman and 
her son ; for the son of this bondwoman will not be 
heir with my son, Isaac." 5. And the thing was 
grievous in Abraham's sight, because of his maid- 
servant and because of his son, that he should drive 
them from him. 6. And God said to Abraham " Let 
it not be grievous in thy sight, because of the child 
and because of the bondwoman ; in all that Sarah 
hath said unto thee, hearken to her words and do 
(them) ; for in Isaac shall thy name and seed be 
called. 7* But as for the son of this bondwoman I 
will make him a great 7 nation, because he is of thy 
seed." 8. And Abraham rose up early in the morning 

1 Read " fourth " (Charles). a Cf. Gen. xxi. 8. 

3 Cf . xvi. 16. * Cf. xiii. 19 ff. 
• For 4-13 cf. Gen. xxi. 9-21. 

6 Possibly and davcing is corrupt for with Isaac, which is 
read in LXX and Vulg. ; cf. Gen. xxi. 9. 

7 LXX, Sam., Syr. and Vulg. of Gen xxi. 13, have great , 
but MT omits. 

108 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xvii 

and took bread and a bottle of water, and placed 
them on the shoulders of Hagar and the child, and 
sent her away. 9. And she departed and wandered 
in the wilderness of Beersheba, and the water in the 
bottle was spent, and the child. thirsted, and was not 
able to go on, and fell down. 10. And his mother 
took him and cast him under an olive tree, 1 and went 
and sat her down over against him, at the distance of 
a bow-shot ; for she said, " Let me not see the death 
of my child," and as she sat she wept. 11. And an 
angel of God, one of the holy ones, said unto her, 
" Why weepest thou, Hagar? Arise, take the child, 
and hold him in thine hand ; for God hath heard thy 
voice, and hath seen the child." 12. And she * 
opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water, and she 
went and filled her bottle with water, and she gave 
her child to drink, and she arose and went towards 
the wilderness of Paran. 13. And the child grew and 
became an archer, and God was with him ; and his 
mother took him a wife from among the daughters 
of Egypt. 14. And she bare him a son, and he called 
his "name Nebaioth ; 3 for she said, " The Lord was 
nigh to me when 1 called upon him." 

Mastema proposes to God that Abraham 
shall be put to the Proof (xvi. 15-18). 

2003 a.m. 15. And it came to pass in the seventh week, in the 
first year thereof, in the first month in this jubilee, 4 
on the t welfth of this month , there were voices in 
heaven regarding Abraham, that he was faithful in 
all that He told him, and that he loved the Lord, and 
that in every affliction he was faithful. 16. And the 

1 LXX (Gen. xxi. 15) "under a fir tree"; MT "under 
one of the shrubs." 

J Read (f) " He" (God). 

a Cf. Gen. xxv. 13. 

4 According to the chronology of our Book (cf. xvi. 12 with 
this passage) Isaac was twenty-three years old when he was 
offered up; according to the Seder Olam he was thirty -seven. 

chap, xvn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 109 

prince Mastema l came and said before God, " Behold, 
Abraham loveth Isaac his son, and he delighteth in him 
above all things else ; bid him offer him as a burnt- 
offering dn the altar, and Thou wilt see if he will do 
this command, and Thou wilt know if he is faithful 
in everything wherein Thou dost try him. 17. And . < 
the Lord knew that Abraham was faithful in all his ." 
afflictions ; for He had tried him through his country / ^ 
and with famine, and had tried him with the wealth ! S' v 
of kings, and had tried him again through his wife,! 
when she was torn (from him), and with circumcision,/ 
and had tried him through Ishmael and Hagar, his 
maid-servant, when he sent them away. a 18. And 
in everything wherein He had tried him, he was 
found faithful, and his soul was not impatient, and 
he was not slow to act ; for he was faithful and a lover 
of the Lord. 

The Sacrifice of Isaac : Abraham returns to 
Beersheba (x\iii. 1-19; Cf. Gen. xxii. 1-19). 

XVIII. And God said to him, " Abraham, Abra- 
ham " ; and he said, "Behold, (here) am I." 2. 
And He said, " Take thy beloved 8 son whom thou 
lovest, (even) Isaac, and go unto the high country, 4 
and offer him on one of the mountains which 1 will 
point out unto thee." 3. And he rose early in the 
morning and saddled his ass, and took his two young 
men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood 
of the burnt-offering, and he went to the place on 

1 In Gen. xxii 1 it is God Himself who directly proves 

■ Seven of the traditional ten trials of Abraham are here 
mentioned: (1) Departure from his country; (2) famine; 
(3) the wealth of kings; (4) seizure of his wife; (5) circum- 
cision; (6) and (7) expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael f(8) is 
the unfruitfulness of Sarah; (9) the sacrifice of Isaac, and 
(10) the burial of Sarah, cf. xiv. 21 and xix. 3, 81. Slightly 
different enumerations occur elsewhere (e.g. Pirke de R. 
Eliezer, xxvi.-xxx.). 

1 So LXX (Gen. xxii. 2) : MT only (son). 

* So LXX; but MT " the land of Moriah." 

no THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xviii 

the tlii^d day, and he saw the place afar off. 4. And 
he came to a well of water, and he said to his young 
men, " Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad 
shall go (yonder), and when we have worshipped 
we shall come again to you." 5. And he took the 
wood of the burnt -offering and laid it on Isaac his 
son, and he took in his hand the fire and the knife, 
and they went both of them together to that place. 

6. And Isaac said to his father, " Father " ; and he 
said, " Here am I, my son." And he said unto him, 
" Behold the fire, and the knife, and the wood ; but 
where is the sheep for the burnt-offering, father? " 

7. And he said, " God will provide for himself a sheep 
for a burnt-offering, my son." And he drew near 
to the place of the mount of God. 1 8. And he built 
an altar, and he placed the wood on the altar, and 
bound Isaac his son, and placed him on the wood 
which was upon the altar, and stretched forth his 
hand to take the knife to slay Isaac his son. 9. And 
I stood before him, and before the prince of the 
Mast£ma, f and the Lord said, " Bid him not to lay 
his hand on the lad, nor to do anything to him, for I 
have shown that he feareth the Lord." 10. And 
I called to him from heaven, and said unto him : 
"Abraham, Abraham"; and he was terrified and 
said : " Behold, (here) am I." II. And I said unto 
him : " Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do 
thou anything to him ; for now I have shown that 
thou fearest the Lord, and hast not withheld thy son, 
thy first-born son, from me." 12. And the prince of 
the Mast£ma was put to shame ; and Abraham 
lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, a single 
ram caught * ... by his horns, and Abraham went 
and took the ram and offered it for a burnt-offering 
in the stead of his son. 13. And Abraham called 

1 Instead of the words of the mount of God, MT (Gen. xxii. 9) 
reads, which God hath told htm of. 

" Here (cf., also, xviii. 12, xiviii. 9, 12, 15), Mastfema is 
the name given to the whole class cf evil spirits, or Satans; 
elsewhere of the prince of these himself. 

• ? add in a thicket. 


that place " The Lord hath seen," so that it is said 
" (in the mount) the Lord hath seen " : l that is 
Mount Sion. 14. And the Lord called Abraham by 
his name a second time from heaven, as he caused us 
to appear to speak to him in the name of the Lord. 

15. And He said : " By Myself have I sworn, saith 

the Lord, 
Because thou hast done this thing, 
And hast not withheld thy son, thy beloved 2 

son, from Me, 

That in blessing I shall bless thee, 

And in multiplying I shall multiply thy seed 

As the stars of heaven, 

And as the sand which is on the seashore. 

And thy seed will inherit the cities • of its enemies, 

16. And in thy seed will all nations of the earth be 

blessed ; 

Because thou hast obeyed My voice, 

And I have shown to all that thou art faithful 

unto Me in all that I have said unto thee : 
Go in peace." 4 

17. And Abraham went to his young men, and they 
arose and went together to Beersheba, and Abraham 
dwelt by the Well of the Oath. 18. And he cele- 
brated this festival every year, seven days with joy, 
and he called it the festival of the Lord according to 
the seven days during which he went and returned in 
peace. 19. And accordingly hath it been ordained 
and written on the heavenly tables regarding Israel 
and its seed that they should observe this festival 
seven days with the joy of festival. 

1 Syr. and Vulg. render (Gen. xxii. 14) "will see," "seeth." 
MT " it shall be seen " (provided). 
* MT " thine only " (Gen. xxii. 16). 
1 So Sam., version, LXX : MT " gate " (Gen. xxii. 17). 
4 Cf. 1 Sam. i. 17. 

ii2 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xix 

The Death and Burial of Sarah (xix. 1-9; 
cf. Gen. xxiii.). 

XIX. And in the first year of the first week in the 
v010A.11. forty-second jubilee, Abraham returned and dwelt 
opposite Hebron, that is Kirjath Arba, two weeks of 
years. 2. And in the first year of the f third | l 
week of this jubilee the days of the life of Sarah were 
accomplished, and she died in Hebron. 3. And 
Abraham went to mourn over her and bury her, and 
we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient and he 
were not indignant in the words of his mouth; and 
he was found patient in this, and was not disturbed.* 
4. For in patience of spirit he conversed with the 
children of Heth, to the intent that they should give 
him a place in which to bury his dead. 5. And the 
Lord gave him grace before all who saw him, and he 
besought in gentleness the sons of Heth, and they gave 
him the land of the double cave 8 over against Mamre, 
that is Hebron, for four hundred pieces of silver. 
6. And they besought him, saying, " We shall give 
it to thee for nothing " ; but he would not take it 
from their hands for nothing, for he gave the price 
of the place, the money in full, and he bowed down 
before them twice ; and after this he buried his dead 
in the double cave. 7. And all the days of the life 
of Sarah were one hundred and twenty-seven years, 
that is, two jubilees and four weeks and one year : 
these are the days of the years of the life of Sarah. 

8. This is the tenth* trial wherewith Abraham was 
tried, and he was found faithful, patient in spirit. 

9. And he said not a single word regarding the rumour 
in the land how that God had said that He would 
give it to him and to his seed after him, and he begged 
a place there to bury his dead ; for he was found faith- 

1 Read " second " (Charles). 

* This is the tenth trial of Abraham; cf. xvii. 17 note. 

• i. t. the cave of Machpelah (LXX, rb awt\\cuovrb lukovy). 

chap, xix] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 113 

ful, and was recorded on the heavenly tables as the 
friend of God. 1 

Marriage o! Isaac and second Marriage of 
Abraham (cf. Gen. xxiv. 15, xxv. 1-4) ; the 
Birth of Esau and Jacob (cf. Gen. xxv. 19 ff.) 
(xix. 10-14). 

10. And in the fourth year thereof he took a wife 
for his son Isaac and her name was Rebecca [the 
daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, the brother 
of Abraham] a the sister of Laban and daughter of 
Bethuel ; and Bethuel was the son of M61ca, who was 
the wife of Nahor, the brother of Abraham. 11. And 
Abraham took to himself a third wife, and her name 
was Keturah, from among the daughters of his house- 
hold servants, for Hagar had died before Sarah. 8 12. 
And she bare him six sons, Zimram, and Jokshan, 
and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah, in 
the two weeks of years. 13. And in the sixth week, 
in the second year thereof, Rebecca bare to Isaac 
two sons, Jacob and Esau, and Jacob was a smooth 
and upright 4 man, and Esau was fierce, a man of 
the field, and hairy, and Jacob dwelt in tents. 14. 
And the youths grew, and Jacob learned to write ; 5 
but Esau did not learn, for he was a man of the field 
and a hunter, and he learnt war, and all his deeds 
were fierce. 

1 A traditional title of Abraham. It goes back to Isa. xli. 
8; cf. Jas. ii. 23, T.B. Men. 536. 
1 The bracketed words a dittograph. 

• This explains why Abraham did not take Hagar back. 
The later tradition (cf. e. g. Pirke de R. Eliexer xxx.) identifies 
Hagar with Keturah. 

4 Cf. Gen. xxv. 27 (where " plain " = lit. " upright "), 
and Gen. xxvii. 11 (combined here). 

• According to the Targums the " tents " were academies. 
Jacob is represented as a lifelong student of the Torah (cf. 
Ber. rabba lxiii; Pirke de R. Eliezer xxxii.). 



Abraham loves Jacob and blesses him 
(xix. 15-31). 

15. And Abraham loved Jacob, but Isaac loved 
Esau. 16. And Abraham saw the deeds of Esau, and 
he knew that in Jacob l should his name and seed be 
called ; and he called Rebecca and gave command- 
ment regarding Jacob, for he knew that she (too) 
loved Jacob much more than Esau. 17. And he said 
unto her : " My daughter, watch over my son Jacob, 
For he shall be in my stead on the earth, 
And for a blessing in the midst of the children of 

And for the glory of the whole seed of Shem. 
18. For I know that the Lord will choose him to be a 
people for possession unto Himself, above all peoples 
that are upon the face of the earth. 1 19. And be- 
hold, Isaac my son loveth Esau more than Jacob, but 
I see that thou truly lovest Jacob. 

20. Add still further to thy kindness to him, 
And let thine eyes be upon him in love ; 

For he will be a blessing unto us on the earth from 
henceforth unto all generations of the earth. 

21. Let thy hands be strong 

And let thy heart rejoice in thy son Jacob ; 
For I have loved him far beyond all my sons. 

He will be blessed for ever, 

And his seed will fill the whole earth. 

22. If a man can number the sand of the earth, 
His seed also will be numbered. 8 

23. And all the blessings wherewith the Lord hath 
blessed me and my seed shall belong to Jacob and 
his seed alway. 24. And in his seed shall my name 
be blessed, and the name of my fathers, Shem, and 

1 Jacob was to be the founder of the chosen nation; cf. 
ii. 20. 

" Cf. Deut. vii. 6. 

• Cf. Gen. xiii. 16 (cf. also xiii. 20 of our Book). 

chap, xix] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 115 

Noah, and Enoch, and Mahalalel, and Enos, and Seth, 
and Adam. 1 25. And these shall serve 

To lay the foundations of the heaven, 

And to strengthen the earth, 

And to renew all the luminaries which are in the 
26. And he called Jacob before the eyes of Rebecca 
his mother, and kissed him, and blessed him, and 
said : 27. " Jacob, my beloved son, whom my soul 
loveth, may God bless thee from above the firmament, 
and may He give thee all the blessings wherewith He 
blessed Adam, and Enoch, and Noah, and Shem ; 
and all the things of which He told me, and all the 
things which He promised to give me, may He cause to 
cleave to thee and to thy seed for ever, according to 
the days of heaven above the earth. 2 28. And the 
spirits of Mastema shall not rule over thee or over thy 
seed 3 to turn thee from the Lord, who is thy God 
from henceforth for ever. 29. And may the Lord 
God be a father to thee and thou the first-born son, 
and to the people alway. Go in peace, my son." 

30. And they both went forth together from Abraham. 

31. And Rebecca loved Jacob, with all her heart and 
with all her soul, very much more than Esau; but 
Isaac loved Esau much more than Jacob. 

Abraham's Last Words to his Children and 
Grandchildren (xx. 1-11). 

XX. And in the forty-second jubilee, in the first 
year of the jseventhj 4 week, Abraham called 
Ishmael, and his twelve sons, 6 and Isaac and his 
two sons, and the six sons of Keturah, and their 
sons. 2. And he commanded them that they should 
observe the way of the Lord ; that they should work 
righteousness, and love each his neighbour, and act 

1 Notice that Methuselah is omitted, and Adam is reckoned 
among the saints (with Noah and Enoch). 

* Cf. xxii. 13. 3 As over the Geritiles. "' '' 

4 Probably coirupt for " sixth " (Charles). 
' Cf. Gen. xxv. 13-15. 

n6 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xx 

on this manner amongst all men ; that they should 
each so walk with regard to them as to do judgment 
and righteousness on the earth. 3. That they should 
circumcise their sons, 1 according to the covenant 
which He had made with them, and not deviate to 
the right hand or the left of all the paths which the 
Lord had c6mmanded us ; and that we should keep 
ourselves from all fornication and uncleanness, [and 
renounce from amongst us all fornication and un- 
cleanness].* 4. And if any woman or maid commit 
fornication amongst you, burn her with fire,* and 
let them not commit fornication with her after their 
eyes and their heart ; and let them not take to them- 
selves wives from the daughters of Canaan ; for the 
seed of Canaan will be rooted out of the land. 5. And 
he told them of the judgment of the giants, and the 
judgment of the Sodomites, how they had been 
judged on account of their wickedness, and had died 
on account of their fornication, and uncleanness, and 
mutual corruption through fornication.* 

6. " And guard yourselves from all fornication and 

And from all pollution of sin, 
Lest ye make our name a curse, 
And your whole life a hissing, 6 
And all your sons be destroyed by the sword, 
And ye become accursed like Sodom, 
And all your remnant as the sons of Gomorrah. 

7. I implore you, my sons, love the God of 

And cleave ye to all His commandments. 

1 Circumcision, according to our author, is binding upon 
Ishmael's and Keturah's descendants (cf. Gen. xvji. 9/.). 
Nqtice the omission of Esau's descendants. According 
to Pirate de R. Eliezer xxix., Esau, though he had been 
circumcised, " despised circumcision " (his birthright). 

* Bracketed as a dittograph. 

* According to the Law only the adulterous priest's daughter 
was to be burned with fire; others were to be stoned (cf. 
Lev. xxi. 9, xx. 10). 

* Cf. vii. 21 (note). * Cf. Isa. lxv. 15; Jer. xxix. 18. 

chap, xx] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 117 

And walk not after their idols, and after their 

8. 1 And make not for yourselves molten or graven 

gods ; a 
For they are vanity, 
And there is no spirit in them ; 
For they are work of (men's) hands, 
And all who trust in them, trust in nothing. 
Serve them not, nor worship them, 8 
9. But serve ye the Most High God, and worship 

Him continually : 
And hope for His countenance always, 
And work uprightness and righteousness before 

That He may have pleasure in you and grant 

you His mercy, 
And send rain 4 upon you morning and evening, 
And bless all your works which ye have wrought 

upon the earth, 
And bless thy bread and thy water, 5 
And bless the fruit of thy womb and the fruit 

of thy land, 
And the herds of thy cattle, and the flocks of 

thy sheep. 6 

10. And ye will be for a blessing 7 on the earth, 
And all nations of the earth will desire you, 
And bless your sons in my name, 

That they may be blessed as I am." 

11. And he gave to Ishmael and to his sons, and to 
the sons of Keturah, gifts, and sent them away from 
Isaac his son, and he gave everything to Isaac his 
son. 8 

1 For 8 cf. xii. 5, xxii. 18. * Cf. Deut. xxvii. 15. 

• Cf. Exod. xx. 5. • Cf. xii. 4, 18. 

■ Cf. Exod. xxiii. 25. • Cf. Deut. vii. 13. 

' Cf. Gen. xii. 2. • Cf.^Gen. xxv. 5-6. 


118 THE HOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xx 

The Dwelling-places of the Ishmaelites and of 
the Sons of Keturah (xx. 12-13). 

12. And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of 
Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt 
from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the 
lancj wjuch is towards the East facing the desert. 
13. Arid these mingled with each other, and their 
name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites. 

Abraham's Last Words to Isaac (xxi. 1-25). 

2057 XXI. And in the sixth year of the fseventhf l 
( ?205o) week of this jubilee Abraham called Isaac his son, 2 
and commanded him, saying : " I am become old, 
and know not the day of my death, 3 and am full of 
my days. 4 2. And behold, I am one hundred and 
seventy-five years old, 6 and throughout all the days 
of my life I have remembered the Lord, and sought 
with all my heart to do His will, and to walk up- 
rightly in all His ways. 3. My soul hath hated idols, 
(and I have despised those that served them, and I 
have given my heart and spirit) 8 that I might 
observe to do the will of Him who created me. 
4. For He is the living God, and He is holy and 
faithful, and He is righteous beyond all, and there 
is with Him no accepting of (men's) persons and no 
accepting of gifts ; 7 for God is righteous, and execut- 

1 Read " sixth " (Charles). 

■ The rest of this chapter purports to give Abraham's 
directions to Isaac regarding certain kinds of sacrifice. It 
has a remarkable parallel in Test. XI 1 Patriarchs, Levi ix., 
where Isaac instructs Levi in the law of the priesthood, of 
sacrifices, etc. The latter is much shorter than our chapter, 
but hardly more original. The two books may have used a 
common source. 

• In Gen. xxvii. 2 these words are uttered by Isaac. 
4 Cf. Gen. xxv. 8, where LXX, Sam., Vulg. read " full of 

days," but MT omits " days." 

• Cf. Gen. xxV. 7. 

• The bracketed words are supplied from the Latin. 
' Cf. Deut. x. 17. 

chap, xxi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 119 

eth judgment on all those who transgress His com- 
mandments and despise His covenant. 5. And do 
thou, my son, observe His commandments and His 
ordinances and His judgments, and walk not after 
the abominations and after the graven images and 
after the molten images. 6. And eat no blood at 
all of animals or cattle, or of any bird which flieth 
in the heaven. 1 y. 2 And if thou dost slay a victim 
as an acceptable peace-offering, slay ye it, and pour 
out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the 
offering offer on the altar with fine flour (and the 
meat-offering) mingled with oil, 3 with its drink- 
offering — offer them all together on the altar of 
burnt-offering ; it is a sweet savour before the Lord. 4 
8. And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of 
thank-offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, 
and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat 
on the inwards and the two kidneys, and all the fat 
that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou 
shalt remove, together with the kidneys. 5 9. And 
offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before 
the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink- 
offering, for a sweet savour, the bread 6 of the offer- 
ing unto the Lord, 10. And eat its meat on that day 
and on the second day, and let not the sun on the 
second day go down upon it till it is eaten, and let 
nothing be left over for the third day; for it is not 
acceptable [for it is not approved] 7 and let it no 
longer be eaten, and all who eat thereof will bring 
sin upon themselves; for thus I have found it written 
in the books of mv forefathers, and in the words of 
Enoch, and in the words of Noah. 8 n. And on all 

1 Cf. vii. 28 (note). 

2 For 7-0 cf. the summary in Test. XII Patr. Levi ix. 7. 
1 Cf. Lev. ii. 4. 4 For 7 cf. Lev. iii. 7-10. 

h Cf. Lev. iii. 9-10. • " Or food "; cf. Lev. iii. 11. 

7 Bracketed words a dittograph. 

1 No trace of such halakic rules exists in the Books of 
Enoch or the fragments of the Noah apocalypse that nre ex- 
tant. The statement in the text seems to be drigihal to the 
author of Jubilees. 

120 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap.xxi 

thy oblations thou shalt strew salt, and let not the 
salt of the covenant be lacking in all thy oblations 
before the Lord. 1 12. And as regards the wood of the 
sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for 
the altar in addition to these :* cypress, d&fran, 3 
sagad, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, 
laurels and 'citron, juniper, and balsam. 13. And of 
these kinds of wood lay upon the altar under the 
sacrifice, such as have been tested as to their appear- 
ance, and do not lay (thereon) any split or dark 
wood, (but) hard ana clean, without fault, a sound 
and new growth ; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, 
[for its fragrance is gone] for there is no longer 
fragrance in it as before. 4 14. Besides these kinds 
of wood there is none other that thou shalt place 
(on the altar), for the fragrance is dispersed, and the 
smell of its fragrance goeth not up to heaven . 15. Ob- 
serve this commandment and do it, my son, that 
thou mayst be upright in all thy deeds. 16. And at 
all times be clean in thy body, and wash thyself 
with water before thou approachest to offer on the 
altar, and wash thy hands and thy feet before thou 
drawest near to the altar; and when thou art done 
sacrificing, wash again thy hands and thy feet. 6 
17. And let no blood appear upon you nor upon 
your clothes ; be qn thy guard, my son, against 
blood, be on thy guard exceedingly; cover it with 
dust. 6 18. And do not eat any blood, for it is the 
soul ; eat no blood whatever. 7 19. And take no 
gifts for the blood of man, lest it be shed with im- 
punity, without judgment ; for it is the' blood that 

1 Cf. Lev. ii. 13; Test. Levi ix. 14. 

1 In Test. Levi ix. 12 " twelve " evergreen trees are men- 
tioned ; here fourteen, and this number is probably correct. 

• Probably a kind of fir. 

4 This may be the old halaka ; the Mishna has no trace oi 
it. The Mishna (Tamid ii. 3) allows all kinds of wood except 
that of the olive and vine; cf., also, Sifra on Lev. i. 8. 

■ Cf. Exod. xxx. 19-21 ; cf. Test. Levi ix. 11. 

•^Cf. Lev. xvii. 13. 

7 Cf. Lev. xvii. 14; Deut. xii. 23. 

chap, xxi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 121 

is shed that causeth the earth to sin, and the earth 
cannot 'be cleansed from the blood of man save by 
the blood of him who shed it. 1 20. And take no 

E resent or gift for the blood' of man : blood for 
lood, that thou mayest be accepted before the 
Lord, the Most High God; for He is the defence of 
the good : and that thou mayest be preserved from 
all evil, and that He may save thee from every kind 
of death. 

21. I see, my son, 

That all the works of. the children of men are 

sin and wickedness, 
And all their deeds are uncleanness and an 

abomination and a pollution; 
And there is no righteousness with them. 

22. Beware, lest thou shouldest walk in their ways 
And tread in their paths, 

And sin a sin unto death 2 before the Most High 

Else He will [hide His face from thee, 
And] 3 give thee back into the hands 4 of thy 

And root thee out of the land, and thy seed 

likewise from under heaven, 
And thy name and . thy seed will perish from 

the whole earth'. 

23. Turn away ' from all their deeds and all their 

And observe the ordinance of the Most High God, 
And do His will and' be upright in all things. 

24. And He will bless thee in all thy deeds, 

And will raise up from thee the plant of right- 
• eousness 5 through all the earth, throughout 

all generations of the earth, 
And my name and thy name will not be for- 
gotten under heaven for ever. 

1 Cf. vii. 33; Num. xxxv. 33. * Cf. xxxiii. 18. 

s Bracketed by Charles as an interpolation. 
i.e. into the power of. 

• Cf. xvi. 26. 

122 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxi 

25. Go, my son, in peace. 

May the Most High God, my God and thy God, 

strengthen thee to do His will, 
And may He bless all thy seed and the residue 

of thy seed for the generations for ever, with 

all righteous blessings, 
That thou mayest be a blessing on all the earth." x 

26. And he went out from him rejoicing. 

Isaac, Ishmael and Jacob join in Festival with 
Abraham for the Last Time. Abraham's 
Prayer (xxii. 1-9). 

XXII. And it came to pass in the fhrstf 2 week 
in the fforty-fourthf 3 jubilee, in the jsecondf year, 
that is, the year in which Abraham died, that Isaac 
and Ishmael came from the Well of the Oath to 
celebrate the feast of weeks — that is, the feast of the 
first-fruits of the harvest — to Abraham, their father, 
and Abraham rejoiced because his two sons had 
come. 2. For Isaac had many possessions in Beer- 
sheba, and Isaac was wont to. go and see his posses- 
sions and 'to return to his father. 3. And in those 
days Ishmael came to see his father, and they both 
came together, and Isaac offered a sacrifice for a 
burnt-offering, and presented it on the altar of his 
father which he had made in Hebron. 4. And he 
offered a thank-offering and made a feast of joy 
before Ishmael, his brother : and Rebecca made new 
cakes from the new grain, and gave them to Jacob, 
her son, to take them to Abraham, his father, from 
the first-fruits of the land, that he might eat and 
bless the Creator of all things before he died. 5. And 
Isaac, too, sent by the hand of Jacob to Abraham 
a best thank-offering, that he might eat and drink. 
6. And he ate and drank, and blessed the Most High 

1 £f XX. 10. 

1 Read " sixth " (Charles). • 

» Read " forty -second " (Charles). 

chap, xxii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 123 

Who hath created heaven and earth, 
Who hath made all the fat things of the earth, 
And given them to the children of men 
That they might eat and drink and bless their 

L" And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, 
cause Thou hast caused me to see this day : behold , 
I am one hundred three score and fifteen years, an 
old man and full of days, 1 and all my days have 
been unto me peace. 8. The sword of the adver- 
sary ■ hath not overcome me in all that Thou hast 
given me and my children all the days of my life 
until this day. 9. My God, may Thy mercy and 
Thy peace be upon Thy servant, and upon the seed 
of his sons, that they may be to Thee a chosen 
nation and an inheritance ■ from amongst all the 
nations of the earth from henceforth unto all the days 
of the generations of the earth, unto all the ages." 

Abraham's Last Words to and Blessings of 
Jacob (xxii. 10-30). 

10. And he called Jacob and said : " My son 
Jacob, may the God of all 4 bless thee and strengthen 
thee to do righteousness, and His will before Him, 
and may He choose thee and thy seed that ye may 
become a people for His inheritance according to His 
will alway. And do thou, my son, Jacob, draw near 
and kiss me." 11. And he drew near and kissed 
him, and he said : 

" Blessed be my son Jacob 

And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the 
ages : 

May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness ; 

And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the 
midst of the whole earth; 

May nations serve thee, 

1 Cf. xxi. 1. ■ Cf. Jer. vi. 23. 

• Israel is God's inheritance ; cf. Deut. iv. 20. 
4 i. e. of the universe; this idea often recurs in our author. 

124 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxii 

And all the nations bow themselves before thy 
seed. 1 

12. Be strong in the presence of men, 

And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. 8 
Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be 

So that 1 they shall become a holy nation. 

13. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings 
Wherewith he hath blessed me 

And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam ; 8 
May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed 
from generation to generation for ever. 

14. And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteous- 

ness and. impurity, 

That thou mayest be forgiven all (thy) trans- 
gressions ; (and) thy sins of ignorance. 

And may He strengthen thee, 

And bless thee. 

And mayest thou inherit the whole earth, 

15. And may He renew His covenant with thee, 
That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His 

inheritance 4 for all the ages, 
And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a 
God in truth and righteousness throughout all 
the days of the earth. 

16. And do thou, my son Jacob, remember my words, 
And observe the commandments of Abraham, thy 

father : 
Separate thyself from the nations, 
And eat not with .them : 5 
And do not according to their works, 
And become not their associate ; 
For their works are unclean, 

1 Verbally from Gen. xxvii. 29 (Isaac's blessing of Jacob). 

* i.e. all mankind (Charles).- 

* Cf. xix. 27. 
4 Cf. xxii. 9. 

* A strict observance of the dietary laws would make this 
practically impossible; cf. Dan. i. 8; Matt. ix. 11. The 
question was one of crucial importance in the early Maccabean 
period; cf. e. g. 1 Mace. i. 62. 

chap, xxn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 125 

And all their ways are a pollution and an abomi- 
nation and uncleanness. 

17. They offer their sacrifices to the dead * 
And they worship evil spirits,* 

And they eat over the graves, 8 

And all their works are vanity and nothingness. 

18. They have no heart to understand 

And their eyes do not see what their works are, 
And how they err in saying to a piece of wood : 

1 Thou art my God,' 
And to a stone : ' Thou art my Lord and thou 

art my deliverer.' 4 
[And they have no heart.] B 

19. And as for thee, my son Jacob, 
May the Most High God help thee 
And the God of heaven bless thee 

And remove thee from their uncleanness and from 
all their error. 

20. Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife 

from any seed of the daughters of Canaan ; 
For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. 6 

21. For, owing to the transgression of Ham, 7 Canaan 

erred, 8 
And all his seed will be destroyed from off the 

earth and all the residue thereof, 
And none springing from him will be saved on 

the day of judgment. 

22. And as for all the worshippers of idols and the 

9 (b) There will be no hope for them in the land of 
the living; 

1 Cf. Deut. xxvi. 14; Ecclus. xxx. 18, 19, etc. 
1 Cf. 1 Cor. x. 20 (1 Enoch xix. 1). 

• i.e. Partake of the sacrifices offered to the dead; cf. 
Deut. xxvi. 14 (according to one interpretation). 

• Cf. Jer. ii. 27. • Bracketed words a dittograph. 

• Cf. Gen. xxviii. 1 ; Test. Ixvi ix. 10. 
' Cf. vii. 8. 

• Canaan wrongfully seized Palestine; cf. x. 29-34. 

• The four following lines have been transposed by Charles 
for the sake of parallelism. 

126 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxn 

(e) And there will be no remembrance of them on 

the earth; 
(c) For they will descend into Sheol, 
(a) And into the place of condemnation will they go, 1 
As the children of Sodom were taken away from 

the earth 
So will' all those who worship idols be taken 

23. Fear not, my son Jacob, 

And be not dismayed, son of Abraham : 
May the Most High God preserve thee from 

And from all the paths of error may He deliver 


24. This house have I built for myself that I might 
put my name upon it in the earth : [it is given to 
thee and to thy seed for ever], 2 and it will be named 
the house of Abraham; it is given to thee and to 
thy seed for ever ; for thou wilt build my house * and 
establish my name before God for ever: thy seed 
and thy name will stand throughout all generations 
of the earth; 1 

25. And he ceased commanding 4 him and blessing 
him. 26. And the two lay together on one bed, and 
Jacob slept in the bosom of Abraham, his father's 
father and he kissed him seven times, and his affec- 
tion and his heart rejoiced over him. 27. B And he 
blessed him with all his heart and said : ' The Most 
High God, the God of all, and Creator of all, who 
brought me forth from Ur of the Chaldees, that He 
might give me this land to inherit • it for ever, and 
that I might establish a holy seed — blessed be the 
Most High for ever." 28. And he blessed Jacob and 
said : " My son, over whom with all my heart and 
my affection I rejoice, may Thy grace and Thy mercy 

1 Cf. vii. 29. * Bracketed words a dittograph. 

• " House " throughout this passage = " family." 

• t. e. giving the last commands ; cf . Gen. xlix. 33 and often. 
' Charles suspects 27 may be an interpolation. 

• Cf. Gen. xv. 7; Neh. ix. 7. 

chap, xxn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 127 

be lift up x upon him and upon his seed alway> 
29. And do not forsake him, nor set him at nought 
from henceforth unto the days of eternity, and may 
Thine eyes be opened upon him and upon his seed,* 
that Thou mayest preserve him, and bless him, and 
mayest sanctify him as a nation for Thine inherit- 
ance ; 30. And bless him with all Thy blessings from 
henceforth unto all the days of eternity, and renew 
Thy covenant and Thy grace with him and with his 
seed according to all Thy good pleasure unto all the 
generations 01 the earth." 

The Death and Burial of Abraham (xxiii. 1-8; 
cf. Gen. xxv. 7-10). 

XXIII. And he placed two fingers of Jacob on 
his eyes, 8 and he blessed the God of gods, and he 
covered his face and stretched out his feet 4 and 
slept the sleep of eternity, 5 and was gathered to his 
fathers. 2. And notwithstanding all this Jacob was 
lying in his bosom, and knew not that Abraham, his 
father's father, was dead. 3. And Jacob awoke from 
his sleep, and behold Abraham was cold as ice, and 
he said: "Father, father!"; but there was none 
that spake, and he knew that he was dead. 4. And 
he arose from his bosom and ran and told Rebecca, 
his mother ; and Rebecca went to Isaac in the night 
and told him ; and they went together, and Jacob 
with them, and a lamp was in his hand, and when 
they had gone in they found Abraham lying dead. 
5. And Isaac fell on the face of his father, and wept 
and kissed him/ 6. And the voices were heard in 
the house of Abraham, and Ishmael his son arose, 
and went to Abraham his father, and wept over 

1 Cf. Num. vi. 26. 

1 Cf. 1 Kings viii. 29, 52; Dan. ix. 18. 

• Cf. Gen. xlvi. 4. The closing of the eyes (by the eldest 
son) should strictly only be done after death, according to 
Jewish tradition. 

4 Cf. Gen. xlix. 33 (of the death of Jacob). 

s Cf. Jer. li. 39, 57. • Cf. Gen. 1. 1. 

128 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxiii 

Abraham his father, he and all the house of Abraham, 
and they wept with a great weeping. 7. And his 
sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double 
cave, 1 near Sarah his wife, and they wept for him 
forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac and 
Ishmael, and all their sons, and all the sons of 
Ketu«ah in' their places; and the days of weeping 
for Abraham were ended. 8. And he lived tnree 
jubilees and four weeks of years, one hundred and 
seventy-five years, and completed the days of his 
life, being old and full of days. 

The decreasing Years and increasing Corrup- 
tion of Mankind (xxiii. 9-17). 

9. For the days of the forefathers, of their life, 
were nineteen jubilees; and after the Flood they 
began to grow less than nineteen jubilees, and to 
decrease in jubilees, and to grow old quickly, and 
to be full of their days by reason of manifold tribula- 
tion and the wickedness of their ways, with the 
exception of Abraham. 1 10. For Abraham was per- 
fect in all his deeds with the Lord, and well-pleasing 
in righteousness all the days of his life ; and behold, 
he did not complete four jubilees in his life, when 
he had grown old by reason of the wickedness, 8 and 
was full of his days. 11. And all the generations 
which will arise from this time until the day of the 
great judgment will grow old quickly, before they 
complete two jubilees, and their knowledge will 
forsake them by reason of their old age [and all their 
knowledge will vanish away]. 4 12. And-in those 
days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they 
will say regarding him : "He hath lived long, and 
the greater part of his days are pain and sorrow and 

1 i. e. Machpelah; cf. Gen. xxv. 9. 

• Man's years grow less as mankind grows more corrupt; 
cf. for a similar idea 4 Ezra v. 50-55. 

• Even Abraham grew prematurely old owing to the 
universal wickedness. 

4 Bracketed words a ditto graph. 

chap, xxm] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 129 

tribulation, 1 and there is no peace : 13. For calamity 
followeth on calamity, and wound on wound, and 
tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil 
tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments 
such as these, one with another, illness and over- 
throw, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and 
chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, 
and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and pains." * 
14. And all these will come on an evil generation, 
which transgresseth on the earth : their works are 
uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and 
abominations. 8 15. Then they will say : " The days 
of the forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand 
years, and were good ; but, behold, the days of our 
life, if a man hath lived many, are three score years 
and ten, and, if he is strong, four score years, and 
those evil, 4 and there is no peace in the days of this 
evil generation." 16. And in that generation the 
sons will convict their fathers and their elders of sin 
and unrighteousness, 5 and of the words of their 
mouth and the great wickednesses which they per- 
petrate, and concerning their forsaking the covenant • 
which the Lord made between them and Him, that 
they should observe and do all His commandments 
and His ordinances and all His laws, without depart- 
ing either to the right hand or to the left. 7 17. For 
all have done evil, 8 and every mouth speaketh iniquity* 
and all their works are an uncleanness and an abom- 
ination, and all their ways are pollution, uncleanness 
and destruction. 

1 Cf. Ps. xc. 10. 

■ ? a picture of contemporary misfortunes (200 B.C. and 
following years). 

• Cf. vii. 21, xx. 3< xxii. 16. 

• Cf. Ps. xc. 10. 

• ? the protest of the Hasidim (" the pious ") against the 
Hellenizers; cf. I Mace. ii. 42 IT. 

• Cf. 1 Mace. i. 15. 

7 Cf. 1 Mace. ii. 21 f. (Deut. v. 31-32, xxvin.,!^)., *<. 

• Cf. 1 Mace. i. 52-53. • Cf. 1 Mace. ii. 0. 

130 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxni 

The Messianic Woes (xxiii. 18-25). 
[Eschatological partly.] 

18. Behold the earth will be destroyed on account 
of all their works, and there will be no seed of the 
vine, and no oil; for their works are altogether 
faith^ss, ( and they will all perish together, beasts 
and cattle arid birds, and all the fish of the sea, 1 
on account 01 the children of men. 19. And they 
will strive one with another, the young with the old, 
and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, 
and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with 
the prince,* on account of the law and the cove- 
nant ; 8 for they have forgotten commandment, and 
covenant, and feasts, and months, and Sabbaths, 
and jubilees, and all judgments. 20. And they will 
stand (with bows and) swords and war to turn them 
back into the way ; 4 but they will not return until 
much blood hath been shed on the earth, one by 
another. 5 21. And those who have escaped will not 
return from their wickedness to the way of righte- 
ousness, but they will all exalt themselves to deceit 
and wealth, that they may each take all that is his 
neighbour's, and thev will name the great name, but 
not in truth and not in righteousness, and they will 
defile the holy of holies with their uncleanness and 
the corruption of their pollution. 6 22. And a great 
punishment will befall the deeds of this generation 

1 Cf. 4 Ezra v. 7 (Ezek. xxxviii. 20). 

1 Internecine strife is a standing feature in such eschato- 
logical passages; cf. 4 Ezra vi. 24; Matt. xxiv. 10; Ap. 
Bar., lxx. 3-4. 

• Here the writer passes to a description of what is 
happening in his own time. 

• " Way " here = the true path of religion; cf. Isa. xxx. 
21 ; Acts ix. 2, etc. 

1 The conflicts between the early Maccabeans (at the 
head of the national party in Judah) and the Helienizers 
seem to be referred to. 

• Probably the machinations of the Hellenizing party 
under the High Priest Alcimus are referred to; cf. 1 Mace. 
ix. 54. 


from the Lord, and He will give them over to the 
sword and to judgment and to captivity, and to be 
plundered and devoured. 23. And He will wake up 
against them the sinners of the Gentiles, who have 
neither mercy nor compassion r and who will respect 
the person of none, neither old nor young, nor any 
one) for they are more wicked and strong to $0 evil 
than all the children of men. 

And they will use violence against Israel and 

transgression against Jacob, ' 
And much blood will be shed upon the earth, 
And there will be none to gather and none to 
bury. 1 . 

24. In those days they will cry aloud, 

And call and pray that they may be saved from 

the hand of the sinners, the Gentiles ; ■ 
But none will be saved. 

25. And the heads of the children will be white with 

grey hair, 3 
And a child of three weeks will appear old like a 

man of one hundred years, 
And their stature will be destroyed by tribulation 

and oppression. 

Renewed Study of the Law followed by a Re- 
newal of Mankind. The Messianic King- 
dom and the Blessedness of the Righteous 

(xxiii. 26-32 ; cf. Isa. lxv. 17ft). [Eschatological.] 

26. And in those days the children will begin to 

study the laws, 
And to seek the commandments, 
And to return to the path of righteousness. 

27. And the days will begin to grow many and 

increase amongst those children of men, 

1 The sufferings of the nation up to (but not including) 
Simon's High Priesthood (142-135 b.c.) may be referred to. 
For the last line cf. Jer. viii. 2. ■ Cf. Gal. ii. 15. 

• Cf. Sibylline Oracles, ii. 155 ("children With" gre^ hair 
on their temples born ") — one of the signs of the coming in 
of the Messianic age. 

132 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxm 

Till their days draw nigh to one thousand years, 1 
And to a greater number of years than (before) 
was the number of the days. 

28. And there will be no old man 

Nor one who is not satisfied with his days, 
For all will be (as) children and youths. 1 

29. And all their days they will complete and live 

in peace and in joy, 8 
And there will be no Satan 4 nor any' evil 

destroyer ; 
For all their days will be days of blessing and 


30. And at that time the Lord will heal His servants, 
And they will rise up 8 and see 7 great peace, 
And drive out their adversaries. 

And the righteous will see and be thankful, 
And rejoice with joy for ever and ever, 
And will see all their judgments and all their 
curses on their enemies. 

31. And their bones will rest in the earth, 
And their spirits will have much joy, 8 

And they will know that it is the Lord who 

executeth judgment, 
And showeth mercy to hundreds and thousands 

and to all that love Him. 9 

32. And do thou, Moses, write down these words; 
for thus are they written, and they record (them) on 
the heavenly tables for a testimony for the generations 

. for ever. 

1 The span of life originally designed for mankind. Adam 
fell short of this because of his sin. 
1 Cf. Isa. lxv. 20. • Cf. Isa. bcv. 14. 

• Cf. Assumpt. Moses x. 1. • Cf. i. 29. 

• Probably there is no reference here to a resurrection. 
Apparently the Messianic kingdom depicted is a temporary 
one. The eschatology harmonizes with that of 1 Enoch 

1 i. e. enjoy. 

• ». t. they will enjoy a blessed immortality (with no 
bodily resurrection) ; cf. 1 Enoch ciii. 3-4. 

• Cf. 4 Ezra vii. 131 fl, 

chap, xxiv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 133 

Isaac at the Well of Vision : Esau sells his 
Birthright (xxiv. 1-7; cf. Gen. xxv. 11, 29-34). 

XXIV. And it came to pass after the death of 
Abraham, that the Lord blessed Isaac his son, and 
he arose from Hebron and went and dwelt at the 
Well of the Vision 1 in the first year of the third 
week of this jubilee, seven years. 2. And in the 
first year of the fourth week a famine began in the 
land, besides the first famine, which had been in the 
days of Abraham. 2 3. And Jacob sod lentil pottage, 
and Esau came from the field hungry. And he said 
to Jacob his brother: "Give me of this red pot- 
tage." • And Jacob said to him : " Sell to me thy 
[primogeniture, this] birthright and I will give thee 
bread, and also some of this lentil pottage." 4. And 
Esau said in his heart : " I shall die ; of what profit 
to me is this birthright ? " And he said to Jacob : 
" I give it to thee." 5. And Jacob said : " Swear 
to me, this day," and he sware unto him. 6. And 
Jacob gave his brother Esau bread and pottage, and 
he ate till he was satisfied, and Esau despised his 
birthright ; for this reason was Esau's name called 
Edom,* on account of the red pottage which Jacob 
gave him for his birthright. 7. And Jacob became 
the elder, and Esau was brought down from his 

Isaac's Sojourn in Gerar and Dealings with 
Abimelech (xxiv. 8-27; cf. Gen. xxvi.). 

8. And the famine was over the land, and Isaac 
departed to go down into Egypt in the second year 
of this week, and went to the king of the Philistines 
to Gerar, unto Abimelech. o,. 5 And the Lord 
appeared unto him and said unto him : " Go not 
down into Egypt ; dwell in the land that I shall 
tell thee of, and sojourn in this land, and I shall be 

1 i.e. Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the Living; ( One, that 

scethme"); Gen. xxv. 11. ' 

* Cf. Gen. xxvi. 1. • Cf. Gen. xxv. 30. 

* Edom = " red." ■ For 9-12 cf. Gen. xxvi. 2-6. 

134 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxiv 

with thee and bless thee. 10. For to thee and to 
thy seed shall I give all this land, and I shall estab- 
lish My oath which I sware unto Abraham thy 
father, and I shall multiply thy seed as the stars of 
heaven, and shall give unto thy seed all this land. 
II. And in thy seed will all the nations of the earth 
be blessed; because thy father obeyed My voice, 
and kept My charge and My commandments, and' 
My laws, and My ordinances, and My covenant ; 
and now obey My voice and dwell in this land." 
2080-2 1 01 12. And he dwelt in Gerar three weeks of years. 
AM * 13. And Abimelech charged concerning him, and 
concerning all that was his, saying : " Any man 
that shall touch him or aught that is his shall surely 
die." l 14. And Isaac waxed strong among the 
Philistines, and he got many possessions, oxen and 
sheep and camels and asses and a great household. 
15. And he sowed in the land of the Philistines and 
brought in a hundred-fold, and Isaac became exceed- 
ingly great, and the Philistines envied him. 16. Now 
all the wells which the servants of Abraham had dug 
during the life of Abraham, the Philistines had 
stopped them after the death of Abraham, and 
filled them with earth.' 17. And Abimelech said 
unto Isa,ac : " Go from us, for thou art much 
mightier than we " ; and Isaac departed thence in 
2101 a.m. the first year of the seventh week, and sojourned 
in the valleys of Gerar. 18. And they digged again 
the wells Oi water which the servants of Abraham, 
his father, had digged, and which the Philistines had 
closed after the death of Abraham his father, and 
he called their names as Abraham his father had 
named them. 19. And the servants of Isaac dug a 
well in the' valley, and found living water, and the 
shepherds of Gerar strove with the shepherds of 
Isaac, saying : " The water is ours " ; and Isaac 
called the name of the well " Perversity," £ because 

1 Cf. Gen. xxvi. 11. Notice that no reference is made in 
our text to Isaac's deception about Rebecca. 
1 — Eseft; ci Gen. xxvi. 20. 

chap.xxjv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 135 

they had been perverse with us. 20. And they due 
a second well, and they strove for that also, and 
he called its name " Enmity." l And he arose from 
thence and they digged another well, and for that 
they strove not, and he called the name of it " Room," 1 
and Isaac said : " Now the Lord hath made room 
for us, and we have increase^ in the land." 21. And 
he went up from thence to the Well of the Oath, 3 
in the first year of the first week in the forty-fourth 
jubilee. 22. And the Lord appeared to him that 
night, on the new moon of the first month, and 
said unto him : "I am the God of Abraham thy 
father; fear not, for I am with thee, and shall bless 
thee and shall surely multiply thy seed as the sand 
of the earth, for the sake of Abraham my servant." 
23. And he built an altar there, which Abraham his 
father had first built, and he called upon the name 
of the Lord, and he offered sacrifice to {he God of 
Abraham his father. 24. Arid they digged a well 
and they found living water. 25. And the servants 
of Isaac digged another well and did not 4 find 
water, and they went and told Isaac that they had 
not found water, and Isaac said : " I have sworn 
this day to the Philistines and this thing hath been 
announced to us." 26. And he called the name of 
that place the " Well of the Oath " ; for there he 
had sworn to Abimelech and Ahuzzath his friend and 
Phicol the prefect of his host. 5 27. And Isaac knew 
that day that under constraint he had sworn to 
them to make peace with them. 

1 tm Sitnah; cf. Gen. xxvi. 21. 

* =** Rehoboth; cf. Gen. xxvi. 22. 
1 i.e. Beersheba. 

4 In Gen., xxvi. 32 the MT does not read not; but LXX 
agrees with our text in so reading. It is implied here that 
their failure to find water was due to the covenant made with 

• Cf, Gen. xxvi, 31, 33. 

136 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxiv 

Isaac curses the Philistines (xxiv. 28-33). 

28. And Isaac on that day cursed the Philistines * 
and said : M Cursed be the Philistines unto the day 
of wrath ancj indignation from the midst of all 
nations ; -may God make them a derision' and a 
curse„an4, a*n object of wrath and indignation in the 
hands of the sinners the Gentiles and in the hands 
of the Kittim ■ 29. And whoever escapeth the sword 
of the enemy and the Kittim, may the righteous 
nation 8 root out in judgment from under heaven ; 
for they will be the enemies and foes of my children 
throughout their generations upon the earth. 
30. And no remnant will be left to them, 

Nor one that will be saved on the day of the 

wrath of judgment ; 
For for destruction and rooting out and expul- 
sion from the earth is the whole seed of the 
Philistines (reserved), 
And there will no longer be left for these Caph- 
torim 4 a name or a seed on the earth. 
3 1. 5 For though he ascend unto heaven, 
Thence will he be brought down, 
And though he make himself strong on earth, 
Thertce will he be dragged forth, 
And though he hide himself amongst the nations, 
Even from thence will he be rooted out ; 
And though he descend into Sheol, 
There also will his condemnation be great, 
And there also he will have no peace. 
32. And if he go into captivity, 

By the hands of tnose that seek his life will 
they slay him on the way, 

1 The text reflects the bitter feeling towards the Philistines 
existing among the Jews in Maccabean times. The Philistine 
cities were either destroyed or captured by the Maccabees. 

' i. e. the Macedonians; cf. 1 Mace. i. 1, viii. 5. 

• i. s. Judah under the Maccabees. 

4 The Philistines came oritinally from Caphtor according 
to Amos ix. 7 (Deut. ii. 23; Jer. xlvii. 4). 

• The basis of 31-32 seems to be Amos ix. 2-4. 

chap, xxiv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 137 

And neither name nor seed will be left to him 
on all the earth ; 

For into eternal malediction will he depart." 
33, And thus is it written and engraved concerning 
him on the heavenly tables, to do unto him on the 
day of judgment, so that he may be rooted out of 
the earth. 

Rebecca admonishes Jacob not to marry a 
Canaan it ish Woman. Rebecca's Blessing 

(xxv. 1-23; cf. Gen. xxv hi. 1-4). * 

XXV. And in the second year of this week in this 
jubilee, Rebecca called Jacob her son, and spake 
unto him, saying : " My son, do not take thee a 
wife of the daughters of Canaan, as Esau, thy brother, 
who took him two wives of the daughters of Canaan, 1 
and they have embittered my soul • with all their 
unclean deeds : for all their deeds are fornication 
and lust, and there is no righteousness with them, 
for (their deeds) are evil. 2. And I, my son, love 
thee exceedingly, and my heart and my affection 
bless thee every hour of the day and watch of the 
night. 3. And now, my son, hearken to my voice, 
and do the will of thy mother, and do not take thee 
a wife of the daughters of this land, but only of the 
house of my father, and of my father's Kindred. 
Thou wilt take thee a wife of the house of my father, 
and the Most High God will bless thee, and thy 
children will be a righteous generation and a holy 
seed." 4. And then spake Jacob to Rebecca, his 
mother, and said unto ner : " Behold, mother, I am 
nine weeks * of years old, and I neither know nor 
have I touched any woman, nor have I betrothed 
myself to any, nor even think of taking me a wife 
of the daughters of Canaan. 5. For I remember, 

1 With this section also compare xxvii. of our Bot>k. '' 

* Cf. Gen. xxvi. 34. 

1 Cf. Gen. xxvii. 46, xxvi. 35. 4 i. e. 63. 

138 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxv 

mother, the words of Abraham, our father, for he 
commanded me not to take a wife of the daughters 
of Canaan, but to take me a wife from the seed of 
my father's house and from my kindred. 6. I have 
heard before that daughters * have been born to 
Laban, thy brother, and I have set my heart on them 
to take a wife from amongst them, 7. And for this 
reason I have guarded myself in my spirit against 
sinning or being corrupted in all my ways throughout 
all the days of my life ; for with regard to lust and 
fornication, Abraham, my father; gave me many 
commands. 1 8. And, despite all that he hath com- 
manded me, these two and twenty years my brother 
hath striven with me, and spoken frequently to me 
and said : ' My brother, take to wife a sister of my 
two wives' ; but I refuse to do as he hath done. 
9. I swear' before thee, mother, that all the days of 
my life I will not take me a wife from the daughters 
of the seed of Canaan, and I will not act wickedly 
as my brother hath done. 19. Fear not, mother; be 
assured that I shall do thy will and walk in upright- 
ness, and not corrupt my ways for ever." II. And 
thereupon she lifted up her face to heaven and 
extended the fingers of her hands, and opened her 
mouth and blessed the Most High God, who had 
created the heaven and the earth, and she gave Him 
thanks and praise. 12. And she said : " Blessed be 
the Lord God, and may His holy name be blessed 
for ever and ever, who hath given me Jacob as a pure 
son and a holy seed ; for He is Thine, and Thine 
shall his seed be continually and throughout all the 
generations for evermore. 13. Bless him, Lord, 
•and place in my mouth the blessing of righteousness, 
that I may bless him." 14. And at that hour, when 
the spirit of righteousness 2 descended into her mouth, 
she placed both her hands on the head of Jacob, and 
said : 

1 Cf. xx. 4, xxxix. 6. 

1 Cf? John xiv. 17, xv. 26, xvi. 13 (rb vvtvua tiji AxnffUr) ; a 
variant reading here is " Holy Spirit." 

chap, xxv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 139 

15. " Blessed art thou, Lord of righteousness and 

God of the ages ; 

And may He bless thee beyond all the generations 
of men. 

May He give thee, my son, the path of righteous- 

And reveal righteousness to thy seed. 

16. And may He make thy sons many during thy 

And may they arise according to the number of 

the months of the year. 
And may their sons become many and great 

beyond the stars of heaven, 
And their numbers be more than the sand of 

the sea. 

17. And may He give them this goodly land — as He 

said He would give it to Abraham and to his 
seed after him alway * — 
And may they hold it as a possession for ever. 

18. And may I see (born) unto thee, my son, blessed 

children during my life, 
And a blessed and holy seed may all thy seed be. 

19. And as thou hast refreshed thy mother's spirit 

during t m yt * n ^ e » 
The womb of her that bare thee blesseth thee, 
[My affection] and my breasts bless thee 
And my mouth and my tongue praise thee greatly. 

20. Increase and spread over the earth, 

And may thy seed be perfect in the joy of heaven 

and earth for ever ; 
And may thy seed rejoice, 
And on the great day of peace may it have 


21. And may thy name and thy seed endnre to all 

the ages, 
And may the Most High God be their God, 
And may the God of righteousness dwell with 


1 Cf. Luke i. 55. 

» Read " thy " (Charles). 

140 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap.xxv 

And by them may His sanctuary be built unto 
all the ages. 1 

22. Blessed be he that blesseth thoc, 

And all flesh that curseth thee falsely may it be 
cursed " * 

23. And sne kissed hiin, and said to him : 

" May the Lord of the world love thee 
As the heart of thy mother and her affection' 
rejoice in thee and bless thee." 
And she ceased from blessing. 

Jacob obtains the Blessing of the Firstborn 

(xxvi. 1-35 ; cf. Gen. xxvii.). 

XXVI. And in the seventh year of this week 
Isaac called Esau, his elder son, and said unto him : 
" I am old, my son, and behold my eyes are dim in 
seeing, and I know not the day of my death. 2. And 
now take thy hunting weapons, thy quiver and thy 
bow, and go out to the field, and hunt and catch me 
(venison), my son, and make me savoury meat, such 
as my soul loveth, and bring it to me that I may 
eat, and that my soul may bless thee before I die. 

3. But Rebecca heard Isaac speaking to Esau. 

4. And Esau went forth early to the field to hunt 
and catch and bring home to his father. 5. And 
Rebecca called JacpD, her .son, and said unto him : 
11 Behold, I heard Isaac, thy father, speak unto 
Esau, thy brother, saying : ' Hunt for me, and make 
me savoury meat, and bring (it) to me that I may 
eat and bless thee before the Lord before I die.' 
6. And now, my son, obey my voice in that which 
I command thee : Go to thy flock and fetch me two 
good kids of the goats, and I will make them savoury 
meat for thy father, such as he loveth, and thou 
shalt bring (it) to thy father that he may eat and 
bless thee before the Lord before he die, and that 
thou mayst be blessed." 7. And Jacob said to 
Rebecca his mother : " Mother, I shall not withhold 

1 Cf. i. 29. ■ Cf. Gen. xxvii. 29. 

chap.xxvi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 141 

amy thing which my father would eat, and which 
would please him : only I fear, my mother, that he 
will recognise my voice and wish to touch me. 
8. And thou knowest that I am smooth, and Esau, 
my brother, is hairy, and I shall appear before his 
eyes as an evildoer, and shall do a deed which he 
had not commanded me, and he will be wroth with 
me, and I shall bring upon myself a curse, and not 
a blessing." 9. And ReDecca, his mother, said unto 
him : . " Upon me be thy curse, my son, only obey 
my voice. ' 10. And Jacob obeyed the voice of 
Rebecca, his mother, and went and fetched two 
good and fat kids of the goats, and brought them 
to his mother, and his mother made them (savoury 
meat) such as he loved, n. And Rebecca took the 
goodly raiment of Esau, her elder son, which was 
with her in the house, and she clothed Jacob, her 
younger son, (with them), and she put the skins of 
the kids upon his hands and on the exposed parts 
of his neck. 12. And she gave the meat ana the 
bread which she had prepared into the hand of her 
son Jacob. 13. And Jacob went in to his father 
and said : " I am thy son : I have done according 
as thou badest me : arise and sit and eat of that 
which I have caught, father, that thy soul may 
bless me." 14. And Isaac said to his son : " How 
hast thou found so quickly, my son?" 15. And 
Jacob said : " Because (the Lord) thy God caused 
me to find." 16. And Isaac said unto him : " Come 
near, that I may feel thee, my son, if thou art my 
son Esau or not." 17. And Jacob went near to 
Isaac, his father, and he felt him and said : 18. "The 
voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands 
"of Esau," and he discerned him not, because it was 
a dispensation from heaven l to remove his power 
of perception and Isaac discerned not, for his hands 
were hairy as (his brother) Esau's, so that he blessed 
him. .19. And he said : M Art thou my son, Esau? " 
and he said : " I am thy son " : and he said, " iBring 
1 Cf. 1 Kings xii. 15. 

i 4 2 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap. Xxvl 

near to me that I may eat of that which thou hast 
caught, my son, that my soul may bless thee." 
20. And he brought near to him, and he did eat, 
and he brought him wine and he drank. 21. And 
Isaac, his father, said unto him : " Come near and 
kiss me, my son." And he came near and kissed 
him. - 22. And he smelled the smell of his raiment, 
and he blessed him and said : " Behold, the smell 
of my son is as the smell of a (full) l field which the 
Lord hath blessed. 

23. And may the Lord give thee of the dew of heaven 
And of the dew ■ of the earth, and plenty of corn 

and oil : • 
Let nations serve thee, 
And peoples bow down to thee. 

24. Be lord over thy brethren, 

And let thy mother's sons bow down to thee ; 
And may all the blessings wherewith the Lord 

hath blessed me and blessed Abraham, my 

father, 4 
Be imparted to thee and to thy seed for ever : 
Cursed be he that curseth thee, 
And blessed be he that blesseth thee." 

25. And it came to pass as soon as Isaac had made an 
end of blessing his son Jacob, and Jacob had gone 
forth from Isaac his father |he hid himself andf 1 
Esau, his brother, came in from his hunting. 26. And 
he also made savoury meat, and brought (it) to his 
father, and said unto his father : " Let my father 
arise, and eat of my venison that thy soul may bless 
me." 27. And Isaac, his father, said unto him: 
11 Who art thpu ? " And he said unto him : " I am 
thy first born, thy son Esau : I have done as thou 
hast commanded me." 28. And Isaac was very 

1 So Latin here, and Sam. LXX and Vulg. in Gen. xxvii. 
27 : MT omits. 

• Text of Gen. xxvii. 28 has " fatness." 

• Text of Genesis has " wine." 
4 Cf. Gen. xxviii. 4. 

• Charles suspects this to be an addition to the text : read 
" that." 

Chap, xxvi j fH£ BOOK OF JUBILEES 143 

greatly astonished, and said : " Who is he that hath 
hunted and caught and brought (it) to me, and I 
have eaten of all before thou earnest, and have 
blessed him : (and) he shall be blessed, and all his 
seed for ever." 29. And it came to pass when Esau 
heard the words of his father Isaac that he cried 
with an exceeding rreat'and bitter cry, and said 
unto his father: "Bless me, (even) me also, father." 
30. And he said unto him : " Thy brother came with 
guile, and hath taken away thy blessing." And 
he said : " Now I know why his name is named 
Jacob : behold, he hath supplanted me these two 
times : he took away my birth-right, and now he 
hath taken away my blessing." 31. And he said : 
" Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me, father? " 
and Isaac answered and said unto Esau : 

" Behold, I have made him thy lord, 

Aad all his brethren have I given to him for 

And with plenty of corn and wine and oil have I 
strengthened him : 

And what now shall I do for thee, my son ? " 
32. And Esau said to Isaac, his father : 

" Hast thou but one blessing, O father ? 

Bless me, (even) me also, father " : 
And Esau lifted up his voice and wept. 33. And 
Isaac answered and said unto him : 

" Behold, far from the dew of the earth shall be 
thy dwelling, 

And far from the dew of heaven from above. 
34. And by thy sword wilt thou live, 

And thou wilt serve thy brother. 

And it shall come to pass when thou becomest great, 1 

And dost shake his yoke from off thy neck, 

Thou wilt sin a complete sin unto death,* 

1 So Sam. of Gen. xxtii. 40: MT "when Thou shalt 
break loose." 

1 This line is a complete departure from the original text, 
which has : " thou shalt shake his yoke from off thy neck." 
The interpretation here given in the text has no support 

144 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxvi 

And thy seed will be rooted out from under 
35. And Esau kept threatening Jacob because of the 
blessing wherewith his father blessed him, and he 
said in his heart : " May the days of mourning for 
my father now come, so that I may slay my brother 

Rebecca induces Isaac to send Jacob to Meso- 
potamia. Jacob's Dream and View at 
Bethel (xxyii. 1-27; cf. Gen. xxviii.). 

XXVII. And the words of Esau, her elder son, were 
told to % Rebecca in a dream, and Rebecca sent and 
called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him : 
2. " Behold Esau thy brother will take vengeance on 
thee so as to kill thee. 3. Now, therefore, my son, 
obey my voice, and arise and flee thou to Laban, my 
brother, to Haran, and tarry with him a few days 
until thy brother's anger turneth away, and he remove 
his anger from thee, and forget all that thou hast 
done ; then I will send and fetch thee from thence." 
4. And Jacob said: " I am not afraid; if he wisheth 
to kill me, I will kill him." 5. But she said unto 
him : " Let me not be bereft of both my sons on one 
day." 6. And Jacob said to Rebecca his mother : 
44 Behold, thou knowest that my father hath become 
old, and doth not see because his eyes are dull, and 
if I leave him it will be evil in his eyes, because I 
leave him and go away from you, and my father will 
be angry, and will curse me. I will not go ; l when 
he sendeth me, then only will I go." 7. And Rebecca 
said to Jacob : " I will go in and speak to him, and he 
will send thee away." 8. And Rebecca went in and 
said to Isaac : " I loathe my life because of the two 
daughters of Heth, whom Esau hath taken him as 
wives; and if Jacob take a wife from among the 
daughters of the land such as these, for what purpose 

1 The author desires to relieve Jacob of the reproach of 
leaving his father in his old age. 

chap, xxvn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 145 

do I further live ; for the daughters of Canaan are 

evil." 1 9. And Isaac called Jacob and blessed him, 

and admonished him and said unto him : 10. " Do 

not take thee a wife of any of the daughters of Canaan ; 

arise and go to Mesopotamia, to the house of Bethuel, 

thy mother's father, and take thee a wife from thence 

of the daughters of Laban, thy mother's brother. 

11. And God Almighty bless thee and increase and 

multiply thee that thou maycst become a company 

of nations, and give thee the blessings of my father 

Abraham, to thee and to thy seed after thee, that 

thou mayest inherit the land of thy sojournings and 

all the land which God gave to Abraham : go, my 

son, in peace." 12. And Isaac sent Jacob away, and 

he went to Mesopotamia, to Laban the son of Bethuel 

the Syrian, the brother of Rebecca, Jacob's mother. 

13. And it came to pass after Jacob had arisen to 

go to Mesopotamia that the spirit of Rebecca was 

grieved after her son, and she wept. 14. And Isaac 

said to Rebecca : " My sister, 2 weep not on account 

of Jacob, my son ; for lie goeth in peace, and in peace 

will he return. 15. The Most High God will preserve 

him from all evil, and will be with him; for He will 

not forsake him all his days; 16. For I know that 

his ways will be prospered in all things wherever he 

goeth, until he return in peace to us, and we see him 

in peace. 17. Fear not on his acount, my sister, 

for he is on the upright path and he is a perfect man : 

and he is faithful and will not perish. Weep not." 

18. And Isaac comforted Rebecca on account of her 

son Jacob, and blessed him. 19. And Jacob went 

from the Well of the Oath to go to Haran on t lie 

first year of the second week in the forty-fourth 

jubilee, and he came to Luzon the mountains, that is, 

Bethel, on the new moon of the first month of this 2115A.M. 

1 Cf. Gen. xxvii. 40. 

2 The use of " sister " as a term of endearment (to a wife) 
maybe illustrated from Tobit v. 20, vii. 16; Canticles iv. 9, 
etc., but appears to be unknown to Rabbinic literature. Its 
use here may be designed to justify Isaac's having called 
Rebecca his sister at Abimclcch's court. 


146 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxvn 

week, and he came to the place at even and turned 
trom the way to the west of the road that night : 
and he slept there ; for the sun had set. 20. And 
he took one of the stones of that place and laid it 
(at his head) under the tree, 1 and he was journeying 
alone, and he slept. 21. And he dreamt that night, 
and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top 
of it reached to heaven, and behold, the angels of the 
Lord ascended and descended on it : and behold, the 
Lord stood upon it. 22. And He spake to Jacob and 
said : "I am the Lord God of Abraham, thy father, 
and the God of Isaac ; the land whereon thou art 
sleeping, to thee shall I give it, and to thy seed after 
thee. 23. And thy seed will be as the dust of the 
earth, and thou wilt increase to the west and to the 
east, to the north and the south, and in thee and in 
thy seed will all the families of the nations be blessed. 

24. And behold, I shall be with thee, and shall keep 
thee whithersoever thou goest, and I shall bring thee 
again into this land in peace; for I shall not leave 
thee until I do everything that I told thee of." 

25. And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and said, 
" Truly this place is the house of the Lord, and I 
knew it not." And he was afraid and said : " Dread- 
ful is this place which is none other than the house of 
God, and this is the gate of heaven." 26. And 
Jacob arose early in the morning, and took the stone 
which he had put under his head and set it up as a 
pillar for a sign, and he poured oil upon the top of it. 
And he called the name of that place Bethel; but 
the name of the place was Luz at the first. 27. And 
Jacob vowed a vow unto the Lord, saying : " If the 
Lord will be with me, and will keep me in this way 
that I go, and give me bread to eat and raiment to 
put on, so that I come again to my father's house in 
peace, then shall the Lord be my Cod, and this stone 
which I have set up as a pillar for a sign in this place, 
shall be the Lord's house, and of all that thou givest 
me, I shall give the tenth to thee, my God." 

1 ? wtych marked a shrine. 

chap, xxviii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 147 

Jacob's Marriage to Leah and Rachel ; his 
Children and Riches (xxviii. 1-30; cf. Gen. 
xxix., xxx., xxxi. 1-2). 

XXVIII. And he went on his journey, and came 
to the land of- the east, to Laban, the brother of 
Rebecca, and he was with him, and served him for 
Rachel his daughter one week. 1 2} And in the first 
year of the third week he said unto him : " Give 
me my wife, for whom I have served thee seven 
years; " and Laban said unto Jacob. " I will give 
thee thy wife." 3. And Laban made a feast, and 
took Leah his elder daughter, and gave (her) to Jacob 
as a wife, and gave her Zilpah his handmaid for an 
handmaid ; and Jacob did not know, for he thought 
that she was Rachel. 4. And he went in unto her, 
and behold, she was Leah; and Jacob was angry 
with Laban, and said unto him : " Why hast thou 
dealt thus with me ? Did not I serve thee for Rachel 
and not for Leah? Why hast thou wronged me? 
Take thy daughter, and I will go ; for thou hast done 
evil to me." 5. For Jacob loved Rachel more than 
Leah ; for Leah's eyes were weak, but her form was 
very handsome ; but Rachel had beautiful eyes and 
a beautiful and very handsome form. 8 6. And 
Laban said to Jacob : "It is not so done in our 
country, to give the younger before the elder." 4 
And it is not right to do this ; for thus it is ordained 
and written in the heavenly tables,* that no one 
should give his younger daughter before the elder — 
but the elder one giveth first and after her the younger 
—and the man who doeth so, they set down guilt 
against him in heaven, and none is righteous that 
doeth this thing, for this deed is evil before the Lord. 

1 ♦. #. seven years. For 1 cf. Gen. xxix. 1, 20. 
■ For 2-4 cf. Gen. xxix. 21-25. 
• Cf. Gen xxix. 1 7-1 8a. 
4 Cf. Gen, xxix. 26. 

1 The comment of the angels. This rule seems to be 
unknown to tradition. 

148 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxvut 

7. And command thou the children of Israel that they 
do not this thing ; let them neither take nor give the 
younger before they have given the elder, for it is 
very wicked. 8. 1 And Laban said to Jacob : " Let 
the seven days of the feast of this one pass by, and 
I shall give thee Rachel, 2 that thou mayest serve me 
another seven years, that thou mayest pasture my 
sheep as thou didst in the former week." 9. And on 
the day when the seven days of the feast of Leah 
had passed, Laban gave Rachel to Jacob, that he 
might serve him another seven years, and he gave to 
Rachel Bilhah, the sister of Zilpah,' as a handmaid. 
10. And he served yet other seven years for Rachel, 
for Leah had been given to him for nothing. 11. And 
the Lord opened the womb of Leah, and she con- 
ceived and Dare Jacob a son, and he 4 called his name 

2122 a.m. Reuben, 6 on the fourteenth day of the ninth month, 
in the first year of the third week. 12. But the 
womb of Rachel was closed, for the Lord saw that 
Leah was hated and Rachel loved. 13. And again 
Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and 
bare Jacob a second son, and he called his name 

2124 a.m. Simeon, on the twenty-first of the tenth month, and 
in the third year of this week. 14. And again Jacob 
went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare him 
a third son, and he called his name Levi, in the new 

2127 a.m. moon of the first month in the sixth year of this week. 

1 For 8-10 cf. Gen. xxix. 27-29. 

1 The marriage of two living sisters to the same man is 
expressly forbidden in the Mosaic Law; cf. Lev. xviii. i3. 

■ According to Test. Naphtali i. also, Bilhah and Zilpah 
were sisters. In later Jewish tradition they are represented 
as daughters of Laban; cf. e. g. Pirfye de R. Eliezer, xxxvi. 

4 Gen. xxix. 32 has " she called." 

6 The twelve sons of Jacob appear in our text in the same 
order as in Gen. xxix. 32-34, xxx. 1-24, xxxv. 17-18, viz. 
(1) Reuben; (2) Simeon; (3) Levi; (4) Judah ; (5) Dan; 
(6) Naphtali; (7) Gad; (8) Asher; (9) Issachar; (10) 
Zebulon; (11) Joseph; (12) Benjamin. A different order is 
given in Gen. xlix. and in the Test. XII Patriarchs. The 
order of birth, as given in Jubilees, is complicated by textual 
difficulties ; see Charles ad loc. 

chap, xxviii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 149 

15. And again Jacob went in unto her, and she 
conceived, and bare him a fourth son, and he called 
his name Judah, on the fifteenth of the third month, 
in the |first| year of the jfourthf week. 16. And 
on account of all this Rachel envied Leah, for she did 
not bear, and she said to Jacob : " Give me children " ; 
and Jacob said : " Have I withheld from thee the 
fruits of thy womb? Have I forsaken thee? " 17. 
And when Rachel saw that Leah had borne four sons 
to Jacob, Reuben and Simeon and Levi and Judah, 
she said unto him : " Go in unto Bilhah my hand- 
maid, and she will conceive, and bear a son unto me." 
18. (And she gave (him) Bilhah her handmaid to wife.) 
And he went in unto her, and she conceived, and bare 
him a son, and he called his name Dan, on the ninth of, 
the sixth month, in the |sixth| year of the fthirdf 
week. 19. And Jacob went in again unto Bilhah 
a second time, and she conceived, and bare Jacob 
another son, and Rachel called his name Naphtali, 
on the fifth. of the seventh month, in the second year 
of the fourth week. 20. And when Leah saw that 
she had become sterile and did not bear, she envied 
(Rachel) and she also gave her handmaid Zilpah to 
Jacob to wife, and she conceived, and bare a son, and 
Leah called his name Gad, on the twelfth of the eighth 
month, in the third year of the fourth week. 21. And 
he went in again unto her, and she conceived, and bare 
him a second son, and Leah called his name Asher, 
on the second of the eleventh month, in the ffifthf 
year of the fourth week. 22. And Jacob went in 
unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare a son, and 
she called his name Issachar, on the fourth of the 
fifth month, in the |fourth| year of the fourth week, 
and she gave him to a nurse. 23. And Jacob went 
in again unto her, and she conceived, and bare two 
(children), a son and a daughter, and she called the 
name of the son Zebulon, and the name of the daughter 
Dinah, in the seventh of the seventh month, in the 
sixth year of the fourth v»cek. 24. And the Lord was 
gracious to Rachel, and opened her womb, and she 

150 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxvm 

conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name 
Joseph, on the new moon of the fourth month, in the 
2134 A.M. fsixthj year in this lourth week. ^5. And in the 
days when Joseph was born, Jacob said to La ban : 
" Give me my wives and sons, and let me go to 
my father Isaac, and let me make me an house ; for 
I have completed the years in which I have served 
thee for thy two daughters, and I will go to the 
house of my father." 26. And Laban said to Jacob : 
" fTarry with me for thy wagesj \ and pasture my 
flock for me again, and take thy wages. ' 27. And 
they agreed with one another that he should give 
him as his wages those of the lambs and kids which 
were born black and spotted and white, 2 (these) 
were to be his wages. 28. And all the sheep brought 
forth spotted and speckled and black, variously 
marked, 3 and they brought forth again lambs like 
themselves, and all that were spotted were Jacob's 
and those which were not were Laban's. 29. And 
Jacob's possessions multiplied exceedingly, and he 
possessed oxen and sheep 4 and asses and camels, 
and menservants and maidservants. 30. And Laban 
and his sons envied Jacob, and Laban took back his 
sheep from him, and he observed him with evil 

Jacob's Flight with his Family : his Covenant 
with Laban (xxix. 1-12; cf. Gen. xxxi.). 

XXIX. And it came to pass when Rachel had 
borne Joseph, that Laban went to shear his sheep ; 
for they were distant from him a three days' journey. 
2. And Jacob saw that Laban was going to shear his 

1 Gen. xxx. 28 has " appoint me thy wages." 
1 A wrong rendering of the Hebrew (Gen. xxx. 32), which 
means " speckled " (ndkod). 

* Speckled and black, variously marked = LXX woixfAa kcl\ 
owototihr) frwri. : MT does not represent <nro8oet8»?. 

* And sheep : so LXX (Gen. xxx. 43); but MT and other 
versions omit. 

chap, xxix] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 151 

sheep, and Jacob called Leah and Rachel, and spake 
kindly unto them that they should come with him 
to the land of Canaan. 3. For he told them how he 
had seen everything in a dream, even all that He 
had spoken unto him that he should return to his 
father s house ; and they said : "To every place 
whither thou goest we will go with thee." 4. And 
Jacob blessed the God of Isaac his father, and the 
God of Abraham his father's father, and he arose 
and mounted his wives and his children, and took all 
his possessions and crossed the river, and came to the 
land of Gilead, and Jacob hid l his intention from 
Laban and told him not. 5. And in the seventh 
year of the fourth week Jacob turned (his face) 
toward Gilead in the first month, on the twenty-first 
thereof. And Laban pursued after him and overtook 
Jacob in the mountain of Gilead in the third month, 
on the thirteenth thereof. 6. And the Lord did not 
suffer him to injure Jacob; for He appeared to him 
in a dream by night. And Laban spake to Jacob. 
7. And on the fifteenth of those days Jacob made 
a feast for Laban, and for all who came with him, 
and Jacob sware to Laban that day, and Laban also 
to Jacob, that neither should cross the mountain of 
Gilead to the other with evil purpose. 8. And he 
made there a heap for a witness ; wherefore the name 
of that place is called : " The Heap of Witness," 
after this heap. 2 9. But before they used to call the 
land of Gilead the land of the Rephaim ; 3 for it was 
the land of the Rephaim, and the Rephaim were born 
(there), giants whose height was ten, nine, eight down 
to seven cubits. 10. 4 And their habitation was from 
the land of the children of Amnion to Mount Hermon, 
and the seats of their kingdom were Knrnaim and 

1 So LXX (Gen. xxxi. 20) and Targ. Onkelos; but MT 
Sam., Vulg., " stole " (the heart of Laban). 

2 Cf. Gen. xxxi. 47 (" Galced " = " Heap of Witness "). 

* Cf. Gen. xiv. 5. 

* The places here mentioned were, perhaps, associated with 
Maccabean victories in the mind of our author (Charles). 

152 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxix 

Ashtaroth, 1 and Edrei, and Misur, 2 and Beon. 3 
ii. And the Lord destroyed them because of the evil 
of their deeds ; for they were very malignant, and the 
Amorites dwelt in their stead, wicked and sinful, and 
there is no people to-day which hath wrought to the 
full all their sins, and they have no longer length of 
life on the earth. 4 12. And Jacob sent away Laban, 
and he departed into Mesopotamia, the land of the 
East, and Jacob returned to the land of Gilead. 

Jacob, reconciled with Esau, dwells in Canaan 
and supports his Parents (xxix. 13-20; cf. 
Gen. xxxii., xxxiii.). 

13. And he passed over the Jabbok 6 in the ninth 
month, on the eleventh thereof. And on that day 
Esau, his brother, came to him, and he was reconciled 
to him, and departed from him unto the land of 
Seir, but Jacob dwelt in tents. 14. And in the first 
2136 a. m y ear f the fifth week in this jubilee he crossed the 
Jordan, and dwelt beyond the Jordan, and he pas- 
tured his sheep from the sea |of the heapj 8 unto 
Bethshan, 7 and unto Dothan and unto the fiorestt 8 
of Akrabbim. 15. And he sent to his father Isaac 
of all his substance, clothing, and food, and meat, 
and drink, and milk, and butter, and cheese, and some 
dates of the valley, 16. And to his mother Rebecca 
also four times a year, between the times of the 
months, between ploughing and reaping, and between 
autumn and the rain (season) and between winter 

1 In MT of Gen. xiv. 5, Asheroth-karnaim is one place; 
but Syr. and some MSS. of LXX support our text. Karnaim 
was captured by Judas Maccabacus (1 Mace. v. 43 f.). 

■ In Deut. iii. 10 " plain " = miskdr. 

* = probably the Baan of 1 Mace. v. 4 f., which was 
destroyed by Judas. 

* Judas " must have nearly annihilated " the Amorites 

1 Cf. Gen. xxxii. 22. 

* Text corrupt. I-atin has " from the Salt Sea." 
7 Cf. 1 Mace. v. 52, xii. 40. 

■ ? read " ascent " (cf. Num. xxxiv. 4 ; Josh.xv. 3). Judas 
fought in this district (of Idumea) ; cf. 1 Mace. v. 3. 

chap, xxix] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 153 

and spring, to the tower of; Abraham. 17. For 
Isaac had returned from the Well of the Oath and 
gone up to the tower of his father Abraham, and he 
dwelt there apart from his son Esau. 18. For in 
the days when Jacob went to Mesopotamia, Esau 
took to himself a wife Mahalath, the daughter of 
Ishmael, and he gathered together all the flocks of 
his father and his wives, and went up and dwelt on 
Mount Seir, and left Isaac his father at the Well of 
the Oath alone. 1 19. And Isaac went up from the 
Well of the Oath and dwelt in the tower of Abraham 
his father on the mountains of Hebron, 20. And 
thither Jacob sent all that he did send to his father 
and his mother from time to time, all they needed, 
and they blessed Jacob with all their heart and with 
all their soul. 

Dinah ravished. Slaughter of the J^hechem- 
ites. Laws against Intermarriage be- 
tween Israel and the Heathen. The Choice 
of Levi (xxx. 1-26; cf. Gen. xxxiv.). 

XXX. And in the first year of the sixth week he 2143 
went up to Salem, to the east of Shechem, in peace, 2 
in the fourth month. 2. And there they carried off 
Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, into the house of 
Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, the prince 
of the land, and he lay with her and defiled her, and 
she was a little girl, a child of twelve years. 3. And 
he besought his father and her brothers that she 
might be given to him to wife. And Jacob and his 
sons were wroth because of the men of Shechem; 8 

1 Cl. Gen. xxviii. 9, xxxvi. 6, 8. In contrast with Jacob's 
conduct to his parents. Esau's is un filial. 

* Based upon xxxiii. 18 (cf. R.V. marg). Our text com- 
bines two readings (" Shalem," the name of a city, and 
shSlom, " peace "). 

' Our author omits all reference to the circumcision of the 
Shechemites, because he approves of the conduct of Simeon 
and Levi, and extols it. On the other hand, their conduct 
in the matter. is severely reprobated in Gen. xlix. 5-7. Our 
author's view seems to reflect a bitter feeling against the 
people of Shechem which prevailed in his time. 

154 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxx 

for they had defiled Dinah, their sister, and they spake 
to. them with evil intent and* dealt deceitfully with 
them and beguiled them. 4. And Simeon and 
Levi came unexpectedly to Shechem and executed 
judgment on all the men of Shechem, and slew all the 
men whom they found in it, and left not a single one 
remaining in it : they slew all in torments because 
they had dishonoured their sister Dinah. 5. And 
thus let it not again be done from henceforth that a 
daughter of Israel be denied ; for judgment is ordained 
in heaven against them that they should destroy with 
the sword all the men of the Shechemites because 
they had wrought shame in Israel. 6. And the Lord 
delivered them into the hands of the sons of Jacob 
that they might exterminate them with the sword and 
execute judgment upon them, and that it might not 
thus again be done in Israel that a virgin of Israel 
should be defiled. 7. And if there is any man who 
wisheth in Israel to give his daughter or his sister to 
any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles he shall 
surely die, and they shall stone him with stones ; for 
he hath wrought shame in Israel ; and they shall burn 
the woman with fire, because she hath dishonoured 
the name of the house of her father, and she shall be 
rooted out of Israel. 1 8. And let not an adulteress 
and no uncleanness be found in Israel throughout 
all the days of the generations of the earth ; for Israel 
is holy unto the Lord, and every man who hath defiled 
(it) shall surely die : they shall stone him with stones. 
9. For thus hath it been ordained and written in the 
heavenly tables regarding all the seed of Israel : he 
who defileth (it) shall surely die, and he shall be 
stoned with stones. 10. And to this law there is no 
limit of days,,and no remission, nor any atonement : 
but the man who hath defiled his daughter shall be 
rooted out in the midst of all Israel, because he hath 

1 Notice the passionate denunciation of mixed marriages. 
The burning of the woman with fire, according to the Mosaic 
Law (Lev. xxi. 9), was reserved for the priest's daughter who 
played the harlot, 

chap, xxx] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 155 

given of his seed to Moloch, 1 and wrought impiously 
so as to defile it. II. And do thou, Moses, command 
the children of Israel and exhort them not to give 
their daughters to the Gentiles, and not to take 
for their sons any of the daughters of the Gentiles, 
for this is abominable before the Lord. 12. For this 
reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law 
all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought 
against Dinah, and how the sons of Jacob spake, 
saying : " We shall not give our daughter to a man 
who is uncircumcised ; for that were a reproach 
unto us." 13. And it is a reproach to Israel, to those 
who give, and to those who take the daughters of the 
Gentiles ; for this is unclean and abominable to 
Israel. 14. * And Israel will not be free from this 
uncleanness if it hath a wife of the daughters of the 
Gentiles, or hath given any of its daughters to a man 
who is of any of the Gentiles. .15. For there will 
be plague upon plague, and curse upon curse, and 
every judgment and plague and curse will come 
(upon him) : if he do this thing, or hide his eyes from 8 
those who commit uncleanness, or those who defile 
the sanctuary of the Lord, or those who profane His 
holy name, 4 (then) will the whole nation 5 together 
be judged for all the uncleanness and profanation of 
this (man). 16. And there will be no respect of 
persons [and no consideration of persons],' and no 
receiving at his hands of fruits and offerings and 
burnt-offerings and fat, nor the fragrance of sweet 
savour, so as to accept it: and so fare every man or 
woman in Israel who defileth the sanctuary. 17. For 

1 Cf. Lev. xviii. 21 : here the prohibition in Lev. against 
making " any of thy seed pass through the fire to Moiech " 
is interpreted as = to give one's child in marriage to a Gentile ; 
so, also, Targ. Ps. -Jonathan on this verse. In later times the 
rule has not always been strictly enjoined. 

* 14-15 are based upon Lev. xx. 2-4. 
8 i. e." ignore " ; cf. Lev. xx. 4. 

4 Cf. Lev. xx. 3. 

s In Lev. xx. 5, only the guilty man's family is involved. 

• Bracketed as a dittograph. 

156 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxx 

this reason I have commanded thee, saying : " Testify 
this testimony to Israel : see how the Shechemites 
fared and their sons : how they were delivered into 
the hands of two sons of Jacob, and they slew them 
under tortures, and it was (reckoned) unto them for 
righteousness, and it is written down to them for 
righteousness. 18. And the seed of Levi was chosen 
for the priesthood, and to be Levites, that they might 
minister before the Lord, as we, continually, and that 
Levi and his sons may be blessed for ever ; for he was 
zealous to execute righteousness and judgment and 
vengeance on all those who arose against Israel. 1 
19. And so they inscribe as a testimony in his favour 
on the heavenly tables blessing and righteousness 
before the God of all : 20. And we remember the 
righteousness which the man fulfilled during his 
life, at all periods of the year; until a thousand 
generations they will record it, and it will come to 
him and to his descendants after him, and he hath 
been recorded on the heavenly tables as a friend * 
and a righteous man. 21. All this account I have 
written for thee, and have commanded thee to say to 
the children of Israel, that they should not commit 
sin nor transgress the ordinances nor break the 
covenant which hath been ordained for them, (but) 
that they should fulfil it and be recorded as friends. 1 
22. But if they transgress and work uncleanness in 
every way, they will be recorded on the heavenly 
tables as adversaries, and they will be destroyed out 
of the book of life, 8 and they will be recorded in the 
book of those who will be destroyed and with those 
who will l)e rooted out of the earth. 23. And on the 

1 A different reason lor Levi's choice for the priesthood is 
given in xxxii. 3; cf. also Test. Levi iv. 2. 

' sc. of God. 

1 This expression, derived from the O.T. (cf. Ps. lxix. 28; 
Hxod. xxxii. 32) had reference originally to the temporal 
blessings of the theocracy, and this may be its meaning 
here ; but later the meaning was extended to eternal life. It 
occurs frequently in the N.T. (cf. Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, etc.); 
cf. also 1 Enoch xlvii. 3. 


day when the sons of Jacob slew Shechem a writing 
was recorded in their favour in heaven that they had 
executed righteousness and uprightness and vengeance 
on the sinners, and it was written for a blessing. 
24. And they brought Dinah, their sister, out of the 
house of Shechem, and they took captive everything 
that was in Shechem, their sheep and their oxen and 
their asses, and all their wealth, and all their flocks, 
and brought them all to Jacob their father. 25. And 
he reproached them because they had put the city 
to the sword ; l for he feared those who dwelt in the 
land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites. 26. And 
the dread of the Lord was upon all the cities which 
are around about Shechem, and they did not rise to 
pursue after the sons of Jacob ; for terror had fallen 
upon them. 2 

Jacob's Journey to Bethel and Hebron. Isaac 
blesses Levi and Judah (xxxi. 1-25; cf. Gen. 


XXXI. And on the new moon of. the month Jacob 
spake to all the peoptenf his~rroUsersaying*T" Purify 
yourselves and change your garments, and let us arise 
and go up to Bethel, where I vowed a vow to Him on 
the day when I fled from the face of Esau my brother, 
because He hath been with me and brought me into this 
land in peace, and put ye away the strange gods that 
are among you." 2. And they gave up the strange 
gods and that which was in their ears and which was 
|on their necks, | 3 and the idols which Rachel stole 
from Laban her brother she gave wholly to Jacob. 
And he burnt and brake them to pieces and destroyed 
them, and hid them under an oak which is in the land 
of Shechem. 3. And he went up on the new moon of 
the seventh month to Bethel. And he built an altar 
at the piace where he had slept, and he set up a pillar 
there, and he sent word to his father Isaac to come 
to him to his sacrifice, and to his mother Rebecca. 

1 Cf. Test. Levi vi. ■ Cf. Gen. xxxv. 5. 3 Corrupt. 

158 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxi 

4. And Isaac said : " Let my son Jacob come, and let 
me see him before I die." x 5. And Jacob went to his 
father Isaac and to his mother Rebecca, to the house 
of his father Abraham, 2 and he took two of his sons 
witli him, Levi and Judah, and he came to his father 
Isaac and to his mother Rebecca. 3 6. And Rebecca 
came forth from the tower to the front of it to kiss 
Jacob and embrace him; for her spirit had revived 
when she heard : " Behold Jacob thy son hath come " ; 
and she kissed him. 7. And she saw his two sons, 
and she recognised them, and said unto him : " Are 
these thy sons, my son? " and she embraced them 
and kissed them, and blessed them, saying: " In you 
shall the seed of Abraham become illustrious, and ye 
will prove a blessing on the earth." 8. And Jacob 
went in to Isaac his father, to the chamber where he 
lay, and his two sons were with him, and he took the 
hand of his father, and stooping down he kissed him, 
and Isaac clung to the neck of Jacob his son, and wept 
upon his neck. 9. And the darkness left the eyes of 
Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and 
Judah, and he said : " Are these thy sons, my son ? 
for they are like thee." 10. And he said unto him 
that they were truly his sons : " And thou hast 
truly seen that they are truly my sons." 11. And 
they came near to him, and he turned and kissed 
them and embraced them both together. 12. And 
the spirit of prophecy came down into his mouth, and 
he took Levi by his right hand and Judah by his left. 
13. And he turned to Levi first, 4 and began to bless 
him first, and said unto him : " May the God of all, 
the very Lord of all the ages, bless thee and thy chil- 
dren throughout all the ages. 14. And may the Lord 
give to thee and to thy seed fgreatness and great 

1 Isaac refused to go to Bethel; cf. Test. Levi ix. 2. 

1 i. e. to Hebron. 

1 This last meeting of Jacob with Isaac is not referred to 
in the Rabbinical Haggada. 

* Cf. Test. Levi ix. if. The primacy of Levi is here 

chap, xxxij THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 159 

gloryf, and cause thee and thy seed, from among all 
flesh, to approach Him to serve in His sanctuary as 
the angels of the presence and as the holy ones. 1 
(Even) as they, will the seed of thy sons be for 
glory and greatness and holiness, and may He make 
them great unto all the ages. 15. And they will be 
princes and judges, and chiefs 2 of all the seed of the 
sons of Jacob ; 

They will speak the word of the Lord in righteous- 

And they wdl judge all His judgments in righ- 

And they will declare My ways to Jacob 

And My paths to Israel. 

The blessing of the Lord will be given in their 
mouths 3 

To bless all the seed of the beloved. 4 

16. Thy mother hath called thy name Levi, 
And justly hath she called thy name; 
Thou wilt be joined 5 to the Lord 

And be the companion of all the sons of Jacob ; 

Let His table be thine, 6 

And do thou and thy sons eat thereof ; 

And may thy table be full unto all generations, 

And thy food fail not unto all the ages. 

17. And let all who hate thee fall down before thee, 
And let all thy adversaries be rooted out and 

perish ; 
And blessed be he that blesseth thee, 
And cursed be every nation that curseth thee. 

1 Levi is to serve in the sanctuary as the two highest orders 
of angels serve in the highest heaven. 

2 Levi's descendants arc not only to he priests but also 
rulers of the nation. This double function was exercised 
by the Maccabean priest-princes: cf. Jest. Levi viii. n li. 

3 1. e. the priestly blessing; cf. Kcclus. 1. 20. 

4 i. e. of Abraham. 

8 A play on the nnmc " Levi " (— attache") ; cf. Gen. xxix. 
34 (R.V. marg.) ; also Num. xviii. 2, 4. 

6 Cf. Test. Levi viii. 16 (" and the table of the Lord shall 
thy seed apportion "). 

160 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxi 

18. And to Judah lie said : 

May the Lord give thee strength and power 

To tread down all that hate thee ; 

A prince shalt thou be, thou and one of thy sons, 1 

over the sons of Jacob ; 
May thy name and the name of thy sons 2 go " 

forth and traverse every land and region. 
Then will the Gentiles fear before thy face, 
And all the nations will quake 
[And all the peoples will (make]. 3 

19. In thee shall be the help of Jacob, 

And in thee be found the salvation of Israel. 

20. And when thou sittest on the throne of the 

honour of thy righteousness, 

There will be great peace for all the seed of the 
sons of the beloved, 4 

And blessed will he be that blesseth thee ; 

And all that hate thee and afflict thee and curse thee 

Shall be rooted out and destroyed from the earth 
and accursed." 
21. And turning he kissed him again and embraced 
him, and rejoiced greatly ; for he had seen the sons of 
Jacob his son in very truth. 22. And he went forth 
from between his feet and fell down and worshipped 
him. And he blessed them. And (Jacob) rested 
there with Isaac his father that night, and they ate 
and drank with joy. 23. And he made the two sons 
of Jacob sleep, the one on his right hand and the 
other on his left, and it was counted to him for righ- 
teousness. 24. And Jacob told his father everything 
during the night, how the Lord had shown him great 
mercy, and how He had prospered (him in) all his 
ways, and protected him from all evil. 25. And 
Isaac blessed the God of his father Abraham, who had 
not withdrawn His mercy and His righteousness from 
the sons of His servant Isaac. 

1 t. t. ? the Messiah who is to spring from Judah : but if 
so the expression of the hope is somewhat vague. More 
probably the reference is to the historical David. 

1 i. e. the name of the Jewish people. 

* Bracketed as a dittograph. * i. e. of Abraham. 

chap, xxxi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 161 

Rebecca journeys with Jacob to Bethel 

(xxxi. 26-32). 

26. And in the morning Jacob told his father Isaac 
the vow which he had vowed to the Lord, and the 
vision which he had seen, and that he had built an 
altar, 1 and that everything was ready for the sacrifice 
to be made before tiic Lord as he had vowed, and that 
he had come to set him on an ass. 27. And Isaac 
said unto Jacob his son : "I am not able to go with 
thee ; for I am old, and not able to bear the way : 
go, my son, in peace ; for I am one hundred and sixty- 
hve years this day ; I am no longer able to journey; 
set thy mother (on an ass) and let her go with thee. 

28. And I know, my son, that thou hast come on my 
account, and may this day be blessed on which thou 
hast seen me alive, and I also have seen thee, my son. 

29. Mayest thou prosper and fulfil the vow which 
thou hast vowed; and put not off thy vow; for 
thou wilt be called to account as touching the vow; 2 
now therefore make haste to perform it, and may He 
be pleased who hath made all tilings, to whom thou 
hast vowed the vow." 30. And he said to Rebecca : 
" Go with Jacob thy son " ; and Rebecca went with 
Jacob her son, and Deborah with her, and they came 
to Bethel. 31. And Jacob remembered the prayer 
with which his father had blessed him and his two 
sons, Levi and Judali, and he rejoiced and blessed 
the God of his fathers, Abraham and Isaac. 32. And 
he said : " Now I know that I have an eternal hope, 
and my sons also, before the God of all ; " and thus 
is it ordained concerning the two; and they record 
it as an eternal testimony unto them on the heavenly 
tables how Isaac blessed them. 

1 At Bethel; cf. Gen. xxviii. 18-22. 

2 Note the emphasis on the obligation to keep a vow. 

162 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES - [chap, xxxil 

Levi's Dream at Bethel ; he is appointed to the 
Priesthood. Jacob celebrates the Feast of 
Tabernacles and offers Tithes. The Insti- 
tution of Tithes (xxxii. 1-15 ; cf. Gen. xxxv.). 

XXXII. And he abode that night at Bethel, and 
Levi dreamed l that they had ordained and made him 
the priest of the Most High God, 2 him and his sons for 
ever ; and he awoke from his sleep and blessed the 
Lord. 2. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on 
the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of 
all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both 
of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave 
tithes of all. 3. And in those days Rachel became 
pregnant with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted 
his sons from him 3 upwards and Levi fell to the 
portion of the Lord, 4 and his father clothed him in the 
garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 5 
4. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to 
the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and 
twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven 
lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt- 
offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a 
sweet savour before God. 8 5. This was his offering, 

1 Cf. Test. Levi viii. (which describes Levi's dream-vision 
of seven men in white as having taken place at Bethel) ; 
also v. of the same work (in ix. 3 Jacob has this dream also). 

2 Cf. Gen. xiv. 18-20 (Mclchizedek). The title, " Priest 
of the Most High God," was appropriated by the Maccabean 
priest-kings. Apparently it was expected in certain quarters 
that the Messiah would spring from this priestly ruling house; 
cf. Ps. ex., especially ver. 4. 

8 i.e. from Benjamin. 

4 Levi, as the tenth son (counting backwards from Benja- 
min), fell, under the law of tithe, to the Lord, and was con- 
secrated to the priesthood; cf. also Pirke de If. liliezcr xxxvii., 
where Levi is counted (by a different method) as tenth " and 
was reckoned as the tithe, holy to God " (cf. Lev. xxvii. 32). 

6 A technical expression meaning appointment to the 
priesthood; cf. Exod. xxviii. 41 (K.V. marg.) ; xxix. 9. 

• The number of victims does not agree with the pre- 
scriptions of the Mosaic Law regarding the Feast of Taber- 
nacles; cf. Num. xxix. 12-40; Lev. xxiii. 34-36, 39-44. 

chap, xxxn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 163 

in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that 
he would give a tenth, 1 with their fruit-offerings and 
their drink-offerings. 6. And when the fire had con- 
sumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire, 
and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and 
four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, 
and two kids of the goats ; and thus he did daily for 
seven days. 7. And he and all his sons and his men 
were eating (this) with joy there during seven days 
and blessing and thanking the Lord, who had delivered 
him out of all his tribulation and had given him his 
vow. 8. And he tithed all t lie clean animals, and 
made a burnt sacrifice, but 1 1 ic unclean animals he 
gave (not) to Levi his son, and he gave him all the 
souls of the men. 2 9. And Levi discharged the priestly 
office at Bethel before Jacob his father in preference 
to his ten brothers, and he was a priest there, and 
Jacob gave his vow : thus he tithed again the tithe 3 
to the Lord and sanctified it, and it became holy unto 
Him. 10. And for this reason it is ordained on the 
heavenly tables as a law for the tithing again the 
tithe to eat before the Lord from year to year, 4 in 
the place where it is chosen that His name should 
dwell, and to this law there is no limit of days for ever. 
11. This ordinance is written that it may be fulfilled 
from year to year in eating the second tithe before 
the Lord in the place where it hath been chosen, and 
nothing shall remain over from it from this year to 
the year following. 12. For in its year shall the seed 
be eaten till the days of the gathering of the seed of 
the year, and the wine till the days of the wine, and 
the oil till the days of its season. 13. And all that is 
left thereof and become! h old, let it be regarded as 
polluted : let it be burnt with fire, for it is unclean. 
14. And thus let them eat it together in the 

1 Cf. Gen. xxviii. 22. 

2 Cf. Test. Levi ix. 3 (" And he [Jacob] paid tithes of all 
to the Lord through mc "). 

3 i. e. the second tithe; cf. Num. xviii. 26. 

4 Cf. Deut. xiv. 23 (Tobit i. 7). 

164. THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxn 

sanctuary, and let them not suffer it to become old. 
15. And all the tithes of the oxen and sheep shall be 
holy unto the Lord, 1 and shall belong to His priests, 
which they will eat before Him from year to year ; 
for thus is it ordained and engraven regarding the tithe 
on the heavenly tables. 

Jacob's Visions. He celebrates the eighth day 
of Tabernacles. The Birth of Benjamin 
and Death of Rachel (xxxii. 16-34; cf. Gen. 


16. And on the following night, on the twenty- 
second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build 
that place, and to surround the court with a wall, 
and to sanctify, it and make it holy for ever, for him- 
self and his children after him. 17. And the Lord 
appeared to him by night and blessed him and said 
unto him : ' " Thy name shall not be called Jacob, 
but Israel shall they name thy name." 18. And He 
said unto him again : "I am the Lord who created 
the heaven and the earth, and I shall increase thee 
and multiply thee exceedingly, and kings will come 
forth from thee, and they will judge everywhere 
wherever the foot of the sons of men hath trodden. 

19. And I shall give to thy seed all the earth 2 which 
is under heaven, and they will judge all the nations 
according to their desires, and after that they will get 
possession of the whole earth and inherit it for ever." 

20. And He finished speaking with him, and He went 
up from him, and Jacob looked till He had ascended 
into heaven. 3 21. And he saw in a vision of the night, 
and behold an angel descended from heaven with seven 
tablets 4 in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, 
and he read them and knew all that was written 
therein which would befall him and his sons through- 

1 Cf. Lev. xxvii. 32 ; 2 Chron. xxxi. 6. These tithes are 
not otherwise attested in the O.T. 

a For 17-18 cf. Gen. xxxv. 10-12. Notice that the whole 
inhabited earth (not merely Palestine, as in Gen. xxxv. 12) 
is here promised to Israel. 

• Cf. Gen. xxxv. 13. 4 Cf. 4 Ezra xiv. 24. 

chap, xxxn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 165 

out all the ages. 1 22. And he showed him all that was 
written on the tablets, and said unto him : " Do not 
build this place, and do not make it an eternal sanc- 
tuary, 2 and do not dwell here; for this is not the 
place. Go to the house of Abraham thy father and 
dwell with Isaac thy father until the day of the death 
of thy father, z]. For in Eygpt thou wilt die in 
peace, and in this land thou wilt be buried with honour 
in the sepulchre of thy fathers, with Abraham and 
Isaac. 24. hear not, lor as thou hast seen and road 
it, 'thus will it all be; and do thou write down every- 
thing as thou hast seen and read." 25. And Jacob 
said : " Lord, how can I remember all that I have 
read and seen? " And he said unto him : " I will 
bring all things to thy remembrance." 3 26. And he 
went up from him, and he awoke from his sleep, and 
he remembered everything which he had read and 
seen, and he wrote down all the words which he had 
read and seen. 27. And he celebrated there yet 
another day, 4 and he sacrificed thereon according to 
all that he sacrificed on the former days, and called 
its name f" Addition, "f 5 for f this day was added, f 5 
and the former days he called " The Feast." 6 28. 
And thus it was manifested that it should be, and it 
is written on the heavenly tables : wherefore it was 
revealed to him that he should celebrate it, and add 
it to the seven days of the feast. 2(). 7 And its name 

1 Cf. xlv. 4. 

a The sanctuary at Bethel was not to be the one central 
shrine, where alone acceptable worship was to be offered. 

3 In 4 Ezra xiv. 40, Ezra's memory is said to have been 
miraculously strengthened after he had received the cup 
of inspiration; cf. also John xiv 26. 

4 i. c. the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles. 

5 The Hebrew name is asereth {'asarta), from a root mean- 
ing " detain " ['fisar). Hence, perhaps, we may emend here 
" keeping back," for on that clay he was kept back (Charles). 

6 So in Rabbinic the least of Tabernacles was called. 
par excellence, " the Feast." 

7 29 is very corrupt. Charles suggests that it should be 
read : " And its name was called ' a keeping back ' («. e 
a$ereth) when it was recorded amongst the days of the feast 
days in the number of the days of the year." 

166 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxn 

was called j" Addition, ""[ "["because thatf it was 
recorded amongst the days of the feast days, "[accord- 
ing to| the number of the days of the year. 30. And 
in the night, on the twenty-third of this month, 
Deborah Rebecca's nurse died, and they buried her 
beneath the city under the oak of the river, and he 
called the name of this place, " The river of Deborah," 
and the oak, " The oak of the mourning of Deborah." 1 
31. And Rebecca went and returned to her house to 
his father Isaac, and Jacob sent by her hand rams and 
sheep and he-goats that she should prepare a meal 
for his father such as he desired. 32. And he went 
after his mother till he came to the land of Kabratan, 2 
and he dwelt there. 33. And Rachel bare a son in 
the night, and called his name " Son of my sorrow " ; 
for she suffered in giving him birth : but his father 
called his name Benjamin, on the eleventh of the 
eighth month in the first of the sixth week of this 
2143 A.M. j u bilee. 34. And Rachel died there and she was 
buried in the land 3 of Ephrath, the same is Bethlehem, 
and Jacob built a pillar on the grave of Rachel, on the 
road a^bove her grave. 

Reuben's Sin -with Bilhah. Laws regarding 
Incest. Jacob's Children (xxxiii. 1-23; cf. 
Gen. xxxv. 21-27). 

XXXIII. And Jacob went and dwelt to the south 
of Magdaladra'ef. 4 And he went to his father Isaac, 
he and Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth 
month. 2. And Reuben saw Bilhah, Rachel's maid, 
the concubine of his father, bathing in water in a 

1 Cf. Gen. xxxv. 8 (R.V. marg). 

2 Due to a misunderstanding of the words rendered " some 
distance " (kibrath hd'are*) in Gen. xxxv. 16. The LXX 
also took kibrath to be a proper name (XiBpaPo). 

3 " On the way to " in the text of Gen. xxxv. 19. 

4 A compound of migdal ' eder 'ephrath (" the tower of 
Eder of Ephrath ") ; cf. Gen. xxxv. 21, also Test. Reuben iii. 
Q-15, where the same incident is narrated. In later Jewish 
tradition an explanation is given which exculpates Reuben 
(cf. Targ. Ps.-Jon. on Gen. xxxv. 22). 

chap, xxxin] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 167 

secret place, and he loved her. 3. And he hid himself 
at night, and he entered the house of Bilhah [at night], 
and he found her sleeping alone on a bed in her house. 

4. And he lay with her, and she awoke and saw, and 
behold Reuben was lying with her in the bed, and 
she uncovered the border of her covering and seized 
him, and cried out, and discovered that it was Reuben. 

5. And she was ashamed because of him, and released 
her hand from him, and lie fled. 6. And she lamented 
because of this thing exceedingly, and did not tell it 
to anyone. 7. And when Jacob returned and sought 
her, she said unto him : "I am not clean for thee, 
for I have been defiled as regards thee ; for Reuben 
hath defiled me, and hath lain with me in the night, 
and I was asleep, and did not discover until he 
uncovered my skirt and slept with me." 8. And 
Jacob was exceedingly wroth with Reuben because 
he had lain with Bilhah, because he had uncovered 
his father's skirt. 1 9. And Jacob did not approach 
her again because Reuben had defiled her. And as 
for any man who uncovereth his father's skirt his deed 
is wicked exceedingly, for he is abominable before the 
Lord. 10. For this reason it is written and ordained 
on the heavenly tables that a man should not lie 
with his father's wife, and should not uncover his 
father's skirt, for this is unclean : they shall surely 
die together, 2 the man who lieth with his father's wife 
and the woman also, for they have wrought unclean- 
ness on the earth. II. And there shall be nothing 
unclean before our God in the nation which He hath 
chosen for Himself as a possession. 12. And again, 
it is written a second time : " Cursed he be who lieth 
with the wife of his father, for he hath uncovered 
his father's shame"; and all the holy ones of the 
Lord said " So be it ; so be it." 3 13. And do thou, 
Moses, command the children of Israel that they 
observe this word ; for it (entaileth) a punishment of 
death; and it is unclean, and there is no atonement 

1 Cf. Deut. xxii. 30. * Cf. Lev. xx. II, 

3 Cf. Deut. xxvii. 20. 

1 08 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxm 

for ever to atone for the man who hath committed 
this, but he is to be put to death and slain, and stoned 
with stones, and rooted out from the midst of the 
people of our God. 14. For to no man who doeth so 
in Israel is it permitted to remain alive a single day 
on the earth, for he is abominable and unclean. 15. 
And let them not say : to Reuben was granted life 
and forgiveness after he had lain with his father's 
concubine, and to her also though she had a husband, 
and her husband Jacob, his father, was still alive. 
10. For until that time there had not been revealed 
the ordinance and judgment and law in its complete- 
ness for all, but in thy days (it hath been revealed) as 
a law of seasons and of days, and an everlasting law 
for the everlasting generations. 1 17. And for this 
law there is no consummation of days, and no atone- 
ment for it, but they must both be rooted out in the 
midst of the nation : on the day whereon they com- 
mitted it they shall slay them. 18. And clo thou, 
Moses, write (it) down for Israel that they may 
observe it, and do according to these words, and not 
commit a sin unto death ; 2 for the Lord our God is 
judge, who respecteth not persons and accepteth not 
gifts. 3 19. And tell them these words of the covenant, 
that they may hear and observe, and be on their 
guard with respect to them, and not be destroyed and 
rooted out of the land ; for an uncleanncss, and an 
abomination, and a contamination, and a pollution 
are all they who commit it on the earth before our 
God. 20. And there is no greater sin than the forni- 
cation which they commit on earth; for Israel is a 
holy nation unto the Lord its God, and a nation of 
inheritance, and a priestly and royal nation and for 
(His own) possession; 4 and there shall no such un- 
cleanncss appear in the midst of the holy nation. 
2145 a.m. 21. And in the third year of this sixth week Jacob 
and all his sons went and dwelt in the house of Abra- 

1 " Where there is no law there is no transgression " 
(Horn. iv. 15). 

2 Cf. xxi. 22. 3 Cf. v. 16, xl. 8. 
4 Cf. xvi. 18 (note). 

chap, xxxin] THE HOOK OF JUBILEES 169 

ham, near Isaac his father and Rebecca his mother. 
22. l And these were the names of the sons of Jacob : 
the first-born Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, 
Zebulon, the sons of Leah ; and the sons of Rachel, 
Joseph and Benjamin; and the sons of Bilhah, Dan 
and Naphtali ; and the sons of Zilpali, Gad and Asher ; 
and Dinah, the daughter of Leah, the only daughter 
of Jacob. 23. And they came and bowed themselves 
to Isaac and Rebecca, and when they saw them thev 
blessed Jacob and all his sons, and Isaac rejoiced 
exceedingly, for he saw the sons of Jacob, his younger 
son, and he blessed them. 

War of the Amorite Kings against Jacob and 
his Sons. Joseph sold into Egypt (cf. Gen. 
xxxvii). The Death of Bilhah and Dinah 
(xxxiv. 1-19). 

XXXIV. And in the sixth year of this week of this 2x48 A.M. 
forty-fourth jubilee Jacob sent his sons to pasture 1 

their sheep, and his servants with them, to the pas- 
tures of Shechem. 2. 2 And the seven kings of the 
Amorites assembled themselves together against 
them, to slay them, hiding themselves under the trees, 
and to take thoir cattle as a prey. 3. And Jacob and 
Levi and Judah and Joseph were in the house with 
Isaac their father; lor his spirit was sorrowful, and 
they could not leave him : and Benjamin was the 
youngest, and for this reason remained with his 
lather. 4. And there came the king[s] 3 of Taphu, 4 

1 For 22 cf. Gen. xxxv. 2^-27. 

2 The account given in 2-8 of the conquest of Shechem 
is given in a fuller form in the lest. Judah iii.-vii., and in 
the Midrash Wajjissau (cf. Gastcr, Chronicles of Jerahweel, 
pp. 80-87). The legend evidently has an old basis, for it 
harmonizes with the; statement Riven in Gen. xlviii. 22, 
which refers to Jacob's conquest of Shechem (cf. R.V. margin). 
This form of the story is obviously independent of, and 
possibly older than, that Riven in Gen. xxxiv. 

3 Read " king." 

4 — Tappuah (Josh, xv 53, xvi. 8). It is the Tephon 
mentioned in 1 Mace. ix. 50. This and the following places 
mentioned may have been specially interesting to our author 
because of events connected with them in Maccabean times. 

170 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxiv 

and the king[s] l of f'Aresa.t 2 and the kingfs] * of 
Seragan, 3 and the king^s] l of Selo, 4 and the king[s] 1 
of da'as, 5 and the king of Betho.on, 6 and the king of 
jMa'anisakir.f 7 and all those who dwell in these 
mountains (and) who dwell in the woods in the land 
of Canaan. 5. And they announced this to Jacob 
saying : " Behold, the kings of the Amorites have 
surrounded thy sons, and plundered their herds." 6. 
And he arose from his house, he and his three sons and 
all the servants of his father, and his own servants, 
and he went against them with six thousand 8 men, 
who carried swords. 7. And he slew them in the 
pastures of Shechem, and pursued those who fled, 
and he slew them with the edge of the sword, and he 
slew 9 fAresaj and Taphu and Saregan and Seld and 
f'Amanisakirf and Ga[ga]'as, and he recovered his 
herds. 8. And he prevailed over them, and imposed 
tribute on them that they should pay him tribute, 
five fruit products of their land, and he built Robel lu 
and Tamnatares: 11 9. And he returned in peace, and 
made peace with them, and they became his servants, 
until the day that he and his sons went down into 
2149 a.m. Egypt. 10. 12 And in the seventh year of this week 
he sent Joseph to learn about the welfare of his 
brothers from his house to the land of Shechem, and 
he found them in the land of Dothan. 11. And they 
dealt treacherously with him, and formed a plot 
against him to slay him, but changing their minds, 

1 Read " king." 

2 Read " Asor," t. e. Hazor, the scene of a great victory by 
Jonathan, 1 Mace. xi. 67 ff. 

• Unknown. k i.e. Shiloh. 
1 = ? Gaash (Josh. xxiv. 30). 

• The- scene of more than one Maccabean victory; cf. 
1 Mace. iii. 13'ff ., vii. 39 ft. 

7 Corrupt for " Shakir-Maani." 

• Another reading is " 800." 

• Six out of the seven kings are slain; so Test. Judah iv. 
[For the names see notes on 4 above.] 

10 Perhaps corrupt for " Arbael " = Arbela (1 Mace. ix. 2). 
» = Timnath-heres (Jud. ii. 9); cf. 1 Mace. ix. 50. 
12 For 10-11 cf. Gen. xxxvii. 12 ff. 

chap, xxxiv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 171 

they sold him to Ishmaelite merchants, and they 
brought him down into Egypt, and they sold him to 
Potiphar, the eunuch 1 of Pharaoh, the chief of the 
cooks, 2 priest of the city of 'Flew. 3 12. And the sons 
of Jacob slaughtered a kid, and dipped the coat of 
Joseph in the blood, and sent (it) to Jacob their father 
on the tenth of the seventh month. 13. And he 
mourned all that night, for they had brought it to 
him in the evening, and he became feverish with 
mourning for his death, and he said : " An evil beast 
hath devoured Joseph " ; and all the members of 
his house [mourned with him that day, and they] 4 
were grieving and mourning with him all that day. 

14. And his sons and his daughter rose up to comfort 
him, but he refused to be comforted for his son. 

15. And on that day Bilhah heard that Joseph had 
perished, and she died mourning him, and she was 
living in f£)afratef,f 5 and Dinah also, his daughter, 
died after Joseph had perished. And there came 
these three mournings upon Israel in one month. 16. 
And they buried Bilhah over against the tomb of 
Rachel, and Dinah also, his daughter, they buried there. 
17. And he mourned for Joseph one year, and did 
not cease, for he said " Let me go down to the grave 
mourning for my son." * 18. For this reason 7 it is 
ordained for the children of Israel that they should 
afflict themselves 8 on the tenth of the seventh month 
— on the day that the news which made him weep 
for Joseph came to Jacob his father — that they 
should make atonement for themselves thereon with 
a young goat on the tenth of the seventh month, 

1 Or " court official." 

2 So LXX of Gen. xxxvii. 36 (apx^dyttpoi), misunder- 
standing the Hebrew (= " captain of the guard"). 

3 i.e. Hcliopolis (LXX H\lnv ir6\«at, Gen. xli. 45, 50), 
i. e. " On." 

* Bracketed as a dittograph. 

6 ? = " Kabratan," xxxii. 32. • Cf. Gen. xxxvii. 35. 

7 The reason here given for the institution of the Day of 
Atonement (cf. Lev. xvi.) seems to be peculiar to our IJook. 

8 = fast," cf. Lev. xvi. 31, etc. 

172 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxiv 

once a year, for their sins; for they had grieved the 
affection of their father regarding Joseph his son. 
19. And this day hath been ordained that they should 
grieve thereon for their sins, and for all their trans- 
gressions and for all their errors, so that they might 
cleanse themselves on that day once a year. 

The Wives of Jacob's Sons (xxxiv. 20-21). 

20. And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob 
took unto themselves wives. The name of Reuben's 
wife is 'Ada ; and the name of Simeon's wife is 'Adiba'a, 
a Canaanite ; l and the name of Levi's wife is Melka, 2 
of the daughters of Aram, of the seed of the sons of 
Terah ; and the name of Judah's wife, Betasu'el, 3 a 
Canaanite ; and the name of Issachar's wife, Hezaqa ; 
and the name of Zebulon's wife, jNi'imant ; 4 and 
the name of Dan's wife, 'Egla; and the name of 
Naphtali's wife, Rasu'u, of Mesopotamia; and the 
name of Gad's wife, Maka ; and the name of Asher's 
wife, Tjona ; and the name of Joseph's wife, Asenath, 6 
the Egyptian ; and the name of Benjamin's wife, 
'Ijasaka. 21. And Simeon repented, and took a 
second wife from Mesopotamia as his brothers. 

Rebecca's Last Admonitions and Death 

(xxxv. 1-27). 

2157 a.m. XXXV. And in the first year of the first week of 
the forty-fifth jubilee Rebecca called Jacob, her son, 
and commanded him regarding his father and regard- 
ing his brother' that he should honour them all the 
days of his life. 2. And Jacob said : " I will do 

1 Cf. Gen", xlvi. 10. According to xxx. 7 ff . such a marriage 
(with a Canaanitish woman) was punishable with death. 

2 Cf . Test. Levi xi. 1. 

3 Cf. xli. 7. The name goes back to " Bath-shua " (1. e. 
" daughter of Shua ") ; cf. Test. Judah viii. 2, etc.; cf. Gen. 
xxxviii. 2. 

4 The name is doubtful. Some Ethiopic MSS. omit it. 
6 Cf. Gen. xli. 45. 

chap, xxxv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 173 

everything as thou hast commanded me ; for this 
thing will be honour and greatness to me, and right- 
eousness before the Lord, that 1 should honour them. 

3. And thou too, mother, knowest from the time I 
was born until this day, all my deeds and all that is 
in my heart, that I always think good concerning all. 

4. And how should I not do this thing which thou hast 
commanded me, that I should honour my father and 
my brother ! 5. Tell me, mother, what perversity 
hast thou seen in me and I shall turn away from it, 
and mercy will be upon me." (>. And she said unto 
him : " My son, I have not seen in thee all my days 
any perverse but (only) upright deeds. And yet I 
shall tell thee the truth, my son : I shall die this 
year, and I shall not survive this year in my life; 
for I have seen in a dream the day of my death, that 
I should not live beyond a hundred and fifty-five 
years : and behold J have completed all the days of 
my life which I am to live." 7. And Jacob laughed 
at the words of his mother, because his mother had 
said unto him that she should die ; and she was sitting 
opposite to him in possession of her strength, and she 
was not infirm in her strength ; for she went in and 
out and saw, and her teeth were strong, and no 
ailment had touched her all the days of her life. 8. 
And Jacob said unto her : " Blessed am I, mother, 
if my days approach the days of thy life, and my 
strength remain with me thus as thy strength : and 
thou wilt not die, for thou art jesting idly with me 
regarding thy death." 9. And she went in to Isaac 
and said unto him : " One petition I make unto 
thee : make Esau swear that he will not injure Jacob, 
nor pursue him with enmity ; for thou knowest Esau's 
thoughts that they are perverse from his youth, and 
there is no goodness in him ; for he desireth after thy 
death to kill him. 10. And thou knowest all that he 
hath done since the day Jacob his brother went to 
Haran until this day ; how he hath, forsaken us with 
his whole heart, and hath done evil to us; thy flocks 
he hath taken to himself, and carried off all thy 

174 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxv 

possessions from before thy face. II. And when we 
implored and besought him for what was our own, 
he did as a man who was taking pity on us. 12. And 
he is bitter against thee because thou didst bless Jacob 
thy perfect and upright son ; for there is no evil but 
only goodness in him, and since he came from Haran 
unto this day he hath not robbed us of aught, for he 
bringeth us everything in its season always, and 
rejoiceth with all his heart when we take at his hands, 
and he blesseth us, and hath not parted from us since 
he came from Haran until this day, and he remaineth 
with us continually at home honouring us." 13. And 
Isaac said unto her : "I, too, know and see the deeds 
of Jacob who is with us, how that with all his heart he 
honoureth us ; but I loved Esau formerly more than 
Jacob, because he was the first-born ; but now I love 
Jacob more than Esau, for he hath done manifold 
evil deeds, and there is no righteousness in him, for 
all his ways are unrighteousness and violence, [and 
there is no righteousness around him]. 1 14. And 
now my heart is troubled because of all his deeds, and 
neither he nor his seed is to be saved, for they are 
those who will be destroyed from the earth, and who 
will be rooted out from under heaven, for he hath for- 
saken the God of Abraham and gone after his wives 
and after their uncleanness and after their error, he 
and his children. 15. And thou dost bid me make 
him swear that he will not slay Jacob, his brother ; 
even if he swear he will not abide by his oath, and he 
will not do good but evil only. 16. But if he desireth 
to slay Jacob, his brother, into Jacob's hands will he 
be given, and he will not escape from his hands, [for 
he will descend into his hands.] 2 17. And fear thou 
not on account of Jacob ; for the guardian 3 of Jacob 
is great and powerful and honoured, and praised more 
than the guardian of Esau." 18. And Rebecca sent 

1 ? a dittograph. 

1 ? bracketed words a gloss; cf. xxxvi. 9. 
• ? the gifardian-angel ; cf. Matt, xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15; 
Heb. i. 14. 

chap, xxxv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 175 

and called Esau, and he came to her, and she said 
unto him : " I have a petition, my son, to make 
unto thee, and do thou promise to do it, my son." 

19. And he said : " I will do everything that thou 
sayest unto me, and I will not refuse thy petition." 

20. And she said unto him : " I ask you that the day 
I die, thou wilt take me in and bury me near Sarah, 
thy father's mother, and that thou and Jacob will 
love each other, and that neither will desire evil 
against the other, but mutual love only, and (so) ye 
will prosper, my sons, and be honoured in the midst 
of the land, and no enemy will rejoice over you, and 
ye will be a blessing and a mercy in the eyes of all 
those that love you." 21. And he said : "I will do 
all that thou hast told me, and I shall bury thee on 
the day thou diest near Sarah, my father's mother, 
as thou hast desired that her bones may be near thy 
bones. 22. And Jacob, my brother, also, I shall 
love above all flesh ; for I have not a brother in all the 
earth but him only : and this is no great merit for 
me if I love him ; for he is my brother, and we were 
sown together in thy body, and together came we 
forth from thy womb, and if I do not love my brother, 
whom shall 1 love? 23. And I, myself, beg thee to 
exhort Jacob concerning me and concerning my sons, 
for I know that he will assuredly be king over me and 
my sons, for on the clay my lather blessed him he 
made him the higher and me the lower. 24. And I 
swear unto thee that I shall love him, and not desire 
evil against him all the days of mv life but good only." 
And he sware unto her regarding all this matter. 
25. And she called Jacob before the eyes of Esau, 
and gave him commandment according to the words 
which she had spoken to Esau. 26. And he said : 
" I shall do thy pleasure; believe me that no evil 
will proceed from me or from my sons against Esau, 
and 1 shall be first in naught save in love only." 27. 
And they ate and drank, she and her sons that night, 
and she died, three jubilees and one week and one 
year old, on that night, and her two sons, Esau and 

176 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxv 

Jacob, buried her in the double cave 1 near Sarah, 
their father's mother. 

Isaac's Last Words and Admonitions : his 
Death. The Death of Leah (xxxvi. 1-24). 

2162 a.m. XXXVI. And in the sixth year of this week Isaac 
called his two sons, Esau and Jacob, and they came 
to him, and he said unto them : " My sons, I am going 
the way of my fathers, to the eternal house 2 where 
my fathers are. 2. Wherefore bury me near Abraham 
my father, in the double cave in the field of Ephron 
the Ilittite, where Abraham purchased a sepulchre 
to bury in ; in the sepulchre which I digged for myself, 
there bury me. 3. And this I command you, my 
sons, that ye practise righteousness and uprightness 
on the earth, so that the Lord may bring upon you 
all that the Lord said that he would do to Abraham 
and to his seed. 4. And love one another, my sons, 
your brothers 3 as a man who loveth his own soul, and 
let each seek in what he may benefit his brother, and 
act together on the earth ; and let them love each 
other as their own souls. 5. And concerning the 
question of idols, I command and admonish you to 
reject them and hate them, and love them not; for 
they are full of deception for those that worship them 
and for those that bow down to them. 6. Remember 
ye, my sons, the Lord God of Abraham your father, 
and how I too worshipped Him and served Him in 
righteousness and in joy, that He might multiply 
you and increase your seed as the stars of heaven in 
multitude, and establish you on the earth as the plant 
of righteousness 4 which will not be rooted out unto 
all the generations for ever. 7. And now 1 shall make 
you swear a great oath — for there is no oath which is 
greater than it by the name glorious and honoured 

1 i. e. Machpelah. 

a Cf. Eccles. xii. 5 (" man goeth to his long home," lit. 
" to his eternal house "). 

3 " Your brothers " probably a gloss. 
* Cf. i. 16, xvi. 26, xxi. 24. 

chap, xxxvi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 177 

and great and splendid and wonderful and mighty, 
which created the heavens and the earth and all things 
together — that ye will fear Him and worship Him. 
8. And that each will love his brother with affection 
and righteousness, and that neither will desire evil 
against his brother from henceforth for ever all the 
days of your life, so that ye may prosper in all your 
deeds and not be destroyed. 9. And if either of you 
deviseth evil against his brother, know that from 
henceforth every one that deviseth evil against his 
brother will fall into his hand, and will be rooted out 
of the land of the living, and his seed will be destroyed 
from under heaven. 10. But on the day of turbulence 
and execration and indignation and anger, with flam- 
ing devouring fire as He burnt Sodom, so likewise 
will He burn his land and his city and all that is his, 
and he will be blotted out of the book of the discipline 
of the children of men, and not be recorded in the 
book of life, 1 but in that which is appointed to destruc- 
tion, and he will depart into eternal execration ; so 
that their condemnation may be always renewed in 
hate and in execration and in wrath and in 
torment and in indignation and in plagues and 
in disease for ever. n. I say and testify to you, 
my sons, according to the judgment which will come 
upon the man who wisheth to injure his brother." 
12. And he divided all his possessions between the 
two on that flay, and he gave the larger portion to 
him that was the first-born, and the tower and all 
that was about it. and all that Abraham possessed at 
the Well of the Oath. 13. And he said, " This larger 
portion I shall give to the first-born." 14. And Esau 
said, " I have sold to Jacob and given my birthright 
to Jacob; to him let it be given, and I have not a 
single word to say regarding it, for it is his." 15. And 
Isaac said, " May a blessing rest upon you, my sons, 
and upon your seed this day, for ye have given me 
rest, and my heart is not pained concerning the birth- 
right, lest thou shouldest work wickedness on account 

1 Cf. xxx. 22. 

178 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxvi 

of it. 16. May the Most High God l bless the man 
that worketh righteousness, him and his seed for 
ever." 17. And he ended commanding them and 
blessing them, and they ate and drank together before 
him, and he rejoiced because there was one mind 
between them, and they went forth from him and 
rested that day and slept. 18. And Isaac slept on 
his bed that day rejoicing; and he slept the eternal 
sleep, and died one hundred and eighty years old. 
He completed twenty-five weeks and five years ; and 
his two sons Esau and Jacob buried him. 2 19. And 
Esau went to the land of Edom, to the mountains of 
Seir, and dwelt there. 20. And Jacob dwelt in the 
mountains of Hebron, in the tower of the land of the 
sojournings of his father Abraham, and he worshipped 
the Lord with all his heart and according to the 
visible commands according as He had divided the 
days of his generations. 3 21. And Leah his wife died 
2167 a.m. in the fourth year of the second week of the forty- 
fifth jubilee, and he buried her in the double cave near 
Rebecca his mother, to the left of the grave of Sarah, 
his father's mother. 22. And all her sons and his 
sons came to mourn over Leah his wife with him, and 
to comfort him regarding her, for he was lamenting 
her. 23. For he loved her exceedingly after Rachel 
her sister died ; for she was perfect and upright in all 
her ways and honoured Jacob, and all the days that 
she lived with him he did not hear from her mouth a 
harsh word, for she was gentle and peaceable and 
upright and honourable. 24. And he remembered 
all her deeds which she had done during her life, and 
he lamented her exceedingly; for he loved her with 
all his heart and with all his soul. 

1 This divine title occurs frequently in our Book, and in 
Kcclus. (48 times), and Daniel (13 tunes). In the Pentateuch, 
outside Gen. xiv. (where it occurs lour times), it is only found 
twice. Its use was revived in Ap. Bar. (23 times), and in 4 Ezra. 

2 Cf. Gen. xxxv. 29. 

3 These commands had been made visible to Jacob on the 
seven tables which the angel had shown him in a vision; 
cf. xxxii. 21. 

chap, xxxvil] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 179 

Esau and his Sons wage War with Jacob 

(xxxvii. 1-25). 

XXXVII. 1 And on the day that Isaac the father 2162 a.m. 
of Jacob and Esau died, the sons of Esau heard that 
Isaac had given the portion of t he elder to his younger 
son Jacob and they were very angry. 2. And they 
strove with their father, saying : " Why hath thy 
father given Jacob the portion of the elder and passed 
over thee, although thou art the elder and Jacob the 
younger? ' 3. And he said unto them " Because I 
sold my birthright to Jacob for a small mess of lentils ; 
and on the day my father sent me to hunt and catch 
and bring him something that he should eat and bless 
me, he came with guile and brought my father food 
and drink, and my father blessed him and put me 
under his hand. 4. And now our father hath caused 
us to swear, me and him, that we shall not mutually 
devise evil, either against his brother, and that we 1 

shall continue in love and in peace each with his 
brother and not make our ways corrupt." 2 5. And 
they said unto him, " We shall not hearken unto thee 
to make peace with him ; for our strength is greater 
than his strength, and we are more powerful than he ; 
we shall go against him and slay him, and destroy him 
and his sons. And if thou wilt not go with us, we 
shall do hurt to thee also. 6. And now hearken unto 
us : Let us send to Aram 3 and Philistia 4 and Moab 

1 The legend of the wars between the sons of Jacob and 
Esau contained in chaps, xxxvii. -xxxviii. here seems to 
be ancient. It is also found in Test. Judah ix. and in the 
Jewish Midrashic literature. Our text contains the oldest 

2 This representation gives a favourable view of Esau's 
own attitude. Jn the later form of the legend (in the Yalkut) 
this is altered to Esau's disadvantage. 

3 The peoples mentioned here and in the contrxt nearly 
all played a prominent part in the campaigns of the Maccabees. 
"Aram," i.e. Syria, was, of course, the suz.erain power in 
their day, who sought to oppress the Jews, and whose yoke 
was ultimately entirely thrown off. 

* Cf. xxiv. 28 (note). 

i8o THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap. XxXvi! 

and Amrnon, 1 and let us choose for ourselves chosen 
men who are ardent for battle, and let us go against 
him and do battle with him, and let us exterminate him 
from the earth before he growetli strong." 7. And 
their father said unto them, " Do not go and do not 
make war with him lest ye fall before him." 8. And 
they said unto him, " This too, is exactly thy mode 
of action from thy youth until this day, and thou 
art putting thy neck under his yoke. We shall not 
hearken to these words." 9. And they sent to Aram, 
and to 'Aduram 2 to the friend of their father, and they 
hired along with them one thousand fighting men, 
chosen men of war. 10. And there came to them from 
Moab and from the children of Amnion, those who 
were hired, one thousand chosen men, and from 
Philistia, one thousand chosen men of war, and from 
Edom 3 and from the Horites one thousand chosen 
fighting men, and from the Kittim 4 mighty men of 
war. n. And they said unto their father : " Go forth 
with them and lead them, else we shall slay thee." 
12. And he was filled with wrath and indignation on 
seeing that his sons were forcing him to go before 
(them) to lead them against Jacob his brother. 13. 
But afterward he remembered all the evil which lay 
hidden in his heart against Jacob his brother ; and 
lie remembered not the oath which he had sworn to 
his father and to his mother that he would devise no 
evil all his days against Jacob his brother. 14. And 
notwithstanding all this, Jacob knew not that they 
were coming against him to battle, and he was mourn- 
ing for Leah, his wife, until they approached very 
near to the tower with four thousand warriors and 
chosen men of war. 15. And the men of Hebron 
sent to him saying, " Behold thy brother hath come 
against thee, to fight thee, with four thousand girt 
with the sword, and they carry shields and weapons " ; 
for they loved Jacob more than Esau. So they told 
him ; for Jacob was a more liberal and merciful man 

1 Cf. 1 Mace. v. 6-8. % An Aramaean; ef. xxxviii. 3. 

* Cf. 1 Mace. v. 3, 65 (also iv. 29. 61). 4 Cf. xxiv. 28. 

chap xxxvn] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 181 

than Esau. 16. But Jacob would not believe until 
they came very near to the tower. 17. And he closed 
the gates of the tower ; and he stood on the battle- 
ments and spake to his brother Esau and said, " Noble 
is the comfort wherewith thou hast come to comfort 
me for my wife who hath died. Is this the oath that 
thou didst swear to thy father and again to thy 
mother before they died? Thou hast broken the 
oath, and on the moment that thou didst swear to 
thy father wast thou condemned." 18. And then 
Esau answered and said unto him, " Neither the 
children of men nor the beasts of the earth have any 
oath of righteousness which in swearing they have 
sworn (an oath valid) for ever ; but every day they 
devise evil one against another, and how each may 
slay his adversary and foe. ig. And thou dost hate 
me and my children for ever. And there is no observ- 
ing the tie of brotherhood with thee. 20. Hear these 
words which I declare unto thee, 

If the boar can change its skin and make its 
bristles as soft as wool, 

Or if it can cause horns to sprout forth on its head 
like the horns of a stag or of a sheep, 

Then shall I observe the tie of brotherhood with 
thee. 1 
[And if the breasts separated themselves from their 
mother; for thou hast not been a brother to me.] 2 

21. And if the wolves make peace with the lambs so 

as not to devour or do them violence, 
And if their hearts are towards them for good, 
Then there will l>e peace in my heart towards 


22. And if the lion becometh the friend of the ox and 

maketh peace with him, 

1 For the construction of such sayings cf. the rebuke ad- 
ministered to Akiba (when the latter recognized Bar-Kokba 
as the Messiah) by Jochanan ben Torta : " Sooner shall 
grass grow from thv beard, Akiba, than that Messiah should 
appear." The " boar " may symbolize Esau. 

2 Charles thinks the bracketed words may be out of place 
or corrupt. 

182 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxvii 

And if he is bound under one yoke with him and 

plougheth with him, 
Then shall I make peace with thee. 

23. And when the raven becometh white as the raza, 1 
Then know that I have loved thee 

And shall make peace with thee. 
Thou shalt be rooted out, 
And thy sons shall be rooted out, 
And there shall be no peace for thee." 

24. And when Jacob saw that he was (so) evilly dis- 
posed towards him with his heart, and with all his soul 
as to slay him, and that he had come springing like the 
wild boar which cometh upon the spear that pierceth 
and killeth it, and recoileth not from it ; 25. Then he 
spake to his own and to his servants that they should 
attack him and all his companions. 

The War between Jacob and Esau at the Tower 
of Hebron. The Death of Esau and Over- 
throw of his Forces (xxxviii. 1-14). 

XXXVIII. And after that Judah spake to Jacob, 
his father, and said unto him : " Bend thy bow, 
father, and send forth thy arrows and cast down the 
adversary and slay the enemy ; and mayest thou have 
the power, for we shall not slay thy brother, for he is 
such as thou, and he is like thee : let us give him 
(this) honour." 2. Then Jacob bent his bow and sent 
forth the arrow and struck Esau, his brother, (on his 
right breast) and slew him. 2 3. And again he sent 
forth an arrow and struck 'Adoran the Aramaean, 3 
on the left breast, and drove him backward and slew 
him. 4. And then went forth the sons of Jacob, 
they and their servants, dividing themselves into 
companies on the four sides of the tower. 5. And 

1 " A large white bird which eats grasshoppers " (Isenberg, 
quoted by Charles). 

1 According to later Jewish tradition Esau was killed by 
Chushim, son of Dan, at the cave of Machpelah when Jacob's 
corpse had arrived there for burial; cf. Ptrhe de 11. Eliezer 
xxxix. (towards end). 

3 Cf. xxxvii. 9. 

chap, xxxvin] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 183 

Judah went forth in front, and Naphtali and Gad" 
with him and fifty servants with him on the south 
side of the tower, and they slew all they found before 
them, and not one individual of them escaped. 6. 
And Levi and Dan and Asher went forth on the east 
side of the tower, and fifty (men) with them, and they 
slew the fighting men of Moab and Ammon. 7. And 
Reuben and Issachar and Zebulon went forth on the 
north side of the tower, and fifty men with them, and 
they slew the fighting men of the Philistines. 8. And 
Simeon and Benjamin and Enoch, Reuben's son, 
went forth on the west side of the tower, and fifty 
(men) with them, and they slew of Edom and of the 
Horites four hundred men, stout warriors; and six 
hundred fled, and four of the sons of Esau fled with 
them, and left their father lying slain, as he had 
fallen on the hill which is in 'Aduram. 1 9. And the 
sons of Jacob pursued after them to the mountains 
of Seir. And Jacob buried his brother on the hill 
which is in 'Aduram, and he returned to his house. 
10. And the sons of Jacob pressed hard upon the sons 
of Esau in the mountains of Seir, and bowed their 
necks so that they became servants of the sons of 
Jacob. 11. And they sent to their father (to inquire) 
whether they should make peace with them or slay 
them. 12. And Jacob sent word to his sons that they 
should make peace, and they made peace with them, 
and placed the yoke of servitude upon them, so that 
they paid tribute fo Jacob and to his sons always. 
13. And they continued to pay tribute to Jacob until 
the day that he went clown into Egypt. 2 14. And the 
sons of Edom have not got quit of the yoke of servi- 
tude which the twelve sons of Jacob had imposed on 
them until this day. 3 

1 A city in ldumaca (Edom) identical with the " Adora 
mentioned in i M.icc. xiii. 20. It was captured by John 
Hyrcanus and forced to accept circumcision. In Test. 
Judah ix. 3 the name appears as Aiioviram. 

2 For 1 1 -1 3 cf. Test. Judah ix. 7-8. 

8 1. e. the author's day. Edom was finally made tributary 
to Israel by John Hyrcanus. 

1 84 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES' [chap, xxxviii 

The Kings of Edom (xxxviii. 15-24; cf. Gen. 
xxxvi. 31-39). 

15. And these are the kings that reigned in Edom 
before there reigned any king over the children of 
Israel [until this day] in the land of Edom. 16. And 
Balaq, 1 the son of Beor, reigned in Edom, and the 
name of his city was Danaba. 2 17. And Balaq died, 
and Jobab, the son of Zara. of B6ser, 3 reigned in his 
stead. 18. And Jobab died, and 'Asam, 4 of the land 
of Teman, reigned in his stead. 19. And 'Asam died, 
and 'Adath, 5 the son of Barad, 8 who slew Midian in 
the field of Moab, reigned in his stead, and the name 
of his city was Avith. 20. And 'Adath died, and 
Salman, 7 from 'Amaseqa, 8 reigned in his stead. 21. 
And Salman died, and Saul of Ra'ab6th • (by the) 
river, reigned in his stead. 22. And Saul died, and 
Ba'elunan, 10 the son of Achbor, reigned in his stead. 
23. And Ba'elunan, the son of Achbor, died, and 
'Adath n reigned in his stead, and the name of his 
wife was Maitabith, 12 the daughter of Matarat, 13 the 
daughter of Metab&lza'ab. 14 24. These are the kings 
who reigned in the land of Edom. 

Joseph '8 Service with Potiphar ; his Purity 

and . Imprisonment (xxxix. 1-13 ; cf. Gen. 

XXXIX. And Jacob dwelt in the land of his 
father's sojournings in the land of Canaan. 2. These 
are the generations of Jacob. And Joseph was seven- 
teen years old 16 when they took him down into the 
land of Egypt, and Potiphar, an eunuch of Pharaoh, 

I LXX (Gen. xxxvi. 22) BaAa* = Heb. Beta. 

» MT Dinhabah. » MT Bozrah. 

• LXX 'Aff6ii, MT Husham. * MT Hadad. 

• LXX Ba f a9, MT Bedad. 7 LXX 2aAa^, MT Samlah. 

• MT Masrekah. • LXX 'PowfiAd, MT Rehoboth. 
10 LXX BaXatwdv, MT Baal-hanan. ll MT Hadar. 

II MT Mehetabel. " MT Matted (LXX Marpade). 
14 MT Me-zahab. 16 Cf. Gen. xxxvii. 2. 

chap, xxxix] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 185 

the chief cook x bought him. 3. And he set Joseph 
over all his house, and the blessing of the Lord came 
upon the house of the Egyptian on account of Joseph, 
and the Lord prospered him in all that lie did. 4. 
And the Egyptian committed everything into the 
hands of Joseph ; for he saw that the Lord was with 
him, and that the Lord prospered him in all that he 
did. 5. And Joseph's appearance was comely and 
verv beautiful was his appearance, and his master's 
wife lifted up her eves and saw Joseph, and she loved 
him, and besought him to he with her. 6. But he 
did not surrender his soul, and he remembered the 
Lord and the words which Jacob, his father, used to 
read from amongst t lie words of Abraham, 2 that no 
man should commit fornication with a woman who 
hath a husband ; that for him t lie punishment of 
death hath been ordained in the heavens before the 
Most High God, and the sin will be recorded against 
him in the eternal books continually before the Lord. 
7. And Joseph remembered these words and refused 
to lie with her. 8. And she besought him for a year, 
but he refused and would not listen. 9. But she 
embraced him and held him fast in the house in order 
to force him to he with her, and closed the doors of 
the house and held him fast ; but he left his garment 
in her hands and broke through the door and fled 
without from her presence, to. And the woman saw 
that he would not lie with her, and she calumniated 
him in the presence of his lord, saying : " Thy Hebrew 
servant, whom thou lovest, sought to force me so 
that he might lie with me ; and it came to pass when 
I lifted up my voice that he fled and left his garment 
in my hands when I held him, and he brake through 
the door." n. And the Egyptian saw the garment 
of Joseph and the broken door, and heard the words 
of his wife, and cast Joseph into prison into the place 
where the prisoners were kept whom the king im- 
prisoned. 12. And he was there in the prison; and 
the Lord gave Joseph favour in the sight of the chief 
1 Cf. xxxiv. 11 (note). 2 Cf. xx. 4, xxv. 7. 

186 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xxxix 

of the prison guards and compassion before him, for 
he saw that the Lord was with him, and that the Lord 
made all that he did to prosper. 13. And he com- 
mitted all things into his hands, and the chief of the 
prison guards knew of nothing that was with him, 1 
for Joseph did everything, and the Lord perfected it. 

Joseph interprets the Dreams of the Chief 
Butler and the Chief Baker (xxxix. 14-18 ; 
cf. Gen. xl.). 

14. And he remained there two years. 2 And in 
those days Pharaoh, king of Egypt, was wroth against 
his two eunuchs, against the chief butler and against 
the chief baker, and he put them in ward in the house 
of the chief cook, 3 in the prison where Joseph was 
kept. 15. And the chief of the prison guards ap- 
pointed Joseph to serve them ;- and he served before 
them. ^ 16. And they both dreamed a dream, the chief 
butler and the chief baker, and they told it to Joseph. 
17. And as he interpreted to them so it befell them, 
and Pharaoh restored the chief butler to his office, 
and the (chief) baker he slew, as Joseph had inter- 
preted to them. 18. But the chief butler forgot 
Joseph in the prison, although he had informed him 
what would befall him, and did not remember to 
inform Pharaoh how Joseph had told him for he 

Pharaoh's Dreams and their Interpretation. 
Joseph's Elevation and Marriage (xl; 1-13 ; 
cf. Gen. xli.). 

XL. And in .those days Pharaoh dreamed two 
dreams in one night concerning a famine which was 
to be in all the land, and he awoke from his sleep and 
called all the interpreters of dreams that were in 
Egypt, and magicians, and told them his two dreams, 

1 Cf. Gen. xxxix. 8. 2 Cf. Gen. xli. 1. 

3 Cf- xxxiv. 11 (note). 

chap, xl] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 187 

and they were not able to declare (them). 2. And 
then the chief butler remembered Joseph and spake 
of him to the king, and he brought him forth from the 
prison, and he told his two dreams before him. 3. 
And he said before Pharaoh that his two dreams were 
one, and he said unto him : " Seven years will come 
(in which there will be) plenty over all the land of 
Egypt, and after that seven years of famine, such a 
famine as hath not been in all the land. 4. And now 
let Pharaoh appoint overseers l in all the land of 
Egypt, and let them store up food in every city 
throughout the days of the years of plenty, and there 
will be food for the seven years of famine, and the 
land will not perish through the famine, for it will 
be very severe." 5. And the Lord gave Joseph 
favour and mercy in the eyes of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh 
said unto his servants : " We shall not find such a 
wise and discreet man as this man, for the spirit of 
the Lord is with him." 6. And he appointed him 
the second in all his kingdom and gave him authority 
over all Egypt, and caused him to ride in the second 
chariot of Pharaoh. 7. And he clothed him with 
byssus garments, and lie put a gold chain upon his 
neck, and (a herald) proclaimed before him " 'El 'El 
wa' Abirer," 2 and he placed a ringon his hand and made 
him ruler over all his house, and magnified him, and 
said unto him : " Only on the throne shall I be greater 
than thou." 8. And Joseph ruled over all the land of 
Egypt, and all the princes of Pharaoh, and all his 
servants, and all who did the king's business loved 
him, for he walked in uprightness, for he was with- 
out pride and arrogance, and he had no respect of 
persons, and did not accept gifts, but he judged in 
uprightness all the people of the land 9. And the 

1 Cf. Gen. xli. 34. 

2 'El 'El wa 'Abirer — Hcb. 'el 'el wa'dbir 'el, " God, God, 
the mighty one of God." This is a peculiar amplification of 
the Hebrew 'abrc.k (11. V. " bow the knee ") of Gen. xli. 43. 
" Mighty one of God " may be a technical term for a gTeat 
magician; cf. Acts viii. 10. 

1 88 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xl 

land of Egypt was at peace before Pharaoh because 
of Joseph, for the Lord was with him, and gave him 
favour and mercy for all his generations before all 
those who knew him and those who heard concerning 
him, and Pharaoh's kingdom was well ordered, and 
there was no Satan 1 and no evil person (therein). 
10. And the king called Joseph's name Sephanti- 
phans, 2 and gave Joseph to wife the daughter of 
Potiphar, the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis, 
the chief cook. 3 n. And on the day that Joseph 
stood before Pharaoh he was thirty years old [when 
he stood before Pharaoh]. 12. And in that year 
Isaac died. And it came to pass as Joseph had said 
in the interpretation of his two dreams, according 
as he had said it, there were seven years of plenty over 
all the land of l^gypt, and the land of Egypt produced 
abundantly, one measure (producing) eighteen hun- 
dred measures. 13. And Joseph gathered food into 
every city until they were full of corn until they could 
no longer count and measure it for its multitude. 

Judah's Incest with Tamar ; his Repentance 
and Forgiveness (xli, 1-28; Cf. Gen. xxxviii.). 

2165 a.m. XLI. And in the forty-fifth jubilee, in the second 
week, (and) in the second year, Judah took for his 
first-born Er, a wife from the daughters of Aram, 4 
named Tamar. 2. But he hated, and did not lie 
with her, because his mother was of the daughters of 
Canaan, and he wished to take him a wife of the 
kinsfolk of his mother, but Judah, his father, would 
not permit him. 3. And this Er, the first-born of 

1 A sign of great felicity; cf. xxiii. 29. 

2 t. e. Zaphenath-paneah (Gen. xli. 45). 

8 The author identifies Potiphar of Gen. xxxvii. 36 with 
Potiphera of Gen. xli. 45. In later Jewish legend Asenath 
(Joseph's wife) is represented as a Jewess, a daughter of 
Dinah, who was brought up in the family of Potiphera (cf. 
Pirke de R. Eliezer xxxviii). The difficulty of Joseph's 
heathen marriage is thus removed. 

4 Cf. Test. Judah x. (" from Mesopotamia "). 

Chap, xn] THE BOOK OF JUBiLhhb 189 

Judah, was wicked, and the Lord slew him. 4. And 

Judah said unto Onan, his brother : " Go in unto 

thy brother's wife and perform the duty of a husband's 

brother unto her, 1 and raise up seed unto thy brother." 

5. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his, 

(but) his brother's only, and he went into the house 

of his brother's wife, and spilt the seed on the ground. 

and he was wicked in the eyes of the Lord, and He 

slew him. 6. And Judah said unto Tamar, his 

daughter-in-law : " Remain in thy father's house 

as a widow till Shelah my son be grown up, and I 

shall give thee to him to wife." 7. And he grew up; 

but Bedsu'el, 2 the wife of Judah, did not permit her 

son Shelah to marry. And Bedsu'el, the wife of 

Judah, died in the fifth tvnr of this week. 8. And 2l68 A M - 

in the sixth year Judah went up to shear his sheep at 2l,,r > a.m. 

Timnah. And they told Tamar: "Behold thy 

father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep." 

9. And she put off her widow's clothes, and put on a 

veil, and adorned herself, and sat in the gate adjoining 

the way to Timnah. 10. And as Judah was going 

along he found her, and thought her to be an harlot, 

and he said unto her : " Let me come in unto thee " ; 

and she said unto him : " Come in," and he went in. 

11. And she said unto him : " dive me my hire " ; 

and he said unto her : " I have nothing in my hand 

save my ring that is on my finger, and my necklace, 

and my staff which is in my hand." 12. And she 

said unto him : " Give them to me until thou dost 

send me my hire " ; and he said unto her : " I will 

send unto thee a kid of the goats " ; and he gave them 

to her, (and he went in unto her,) and she conceived 

by him. 13. And Judah went unto his sheep, and 

she went to her father's house. 14. And Judah sent 

a kid of the goats by the hand of his shepherd, an 

Adullamite, and lie found her not ; and he asked the 

people of the place, saying : " Where is the harlot 

who was here? ' And they said unto him : " There 

1 Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 8; Dcut. xxv. 5. 

2 i.e. Bathshua; cf. xxxiv. 20. 

igo THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xn 

is no harlot here with us." 15. And lie returned and 
informed him; and said unto him that lie had not 
found her ; " I asked the people of the place, and they 
said unto me : ' There is no harlot here.' " And he 
said : " Let her keep (them) lest we become a cause of 
derision." 16. And when she had completed three 
months, it was manifest that she was with child, and 
they told Judah, saying : " Behold Tamar, thy 
daughter-in-law, is with child by whoredom." 17. 
And Judah went to the house of her father, and said 
unto her father and her brothers : " Bring her forth, 
and let them burn her, 1 for she hath wrought unclean- 
ness in Israel." 18. And it came to pass when they 
brought her forth to burn her that she sent to her 
father-in-law the ring and the necklace, and the staff, 
saying : " Discern whose are these, for by him am I 
with child." io,. And Judah acknowledged, and 
said : " Tamar is more righteous than I am. And 
therefore let them burn her not." 20. And for that 
reason she was not given to Shelah, and he did not 
again approach her. 21. And after that she bare 
21 70 a.m. two sons, Perez and Zerah, in the seventh year of 
this second week. 22. And thereupon the seven 
years of fruitfulness were accomplished, of which 
Joseph spake to Pharaoh. 2 23. And Judah acknow- 
ledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for 
he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed 
it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he 
had transgressed and gone astray; for he had un- 
covered the skirt of his son, and he began to lament 
and to supplicate before the Lord because of his 
transgression. 24. And we told him in a dream that 
it was forgiven him because he supplicated earnestly, 
and lamented, and did not again commit it. 25. And 
he received forgiveness because he turned from his 

1 The punishment appointed for such an offence on the 
part of a priest's daughter (Lev. xxi. 9); cf. xxx. 7 above. 
According to the Targum (Ps.-Jon.), on Gen. xxxviii. 6, 24, 
Tamar was the daughter of a priest. 

' Ci. Gen. xli. 53. 

chap, xli] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 191 

sin and from his ignorance, for he transgressed 
greatly before our God; and every one that acteth 
thus, every one who lie t li with his mother-in-law, let 
them burn him with fire that he may burn therein, 1 
for there is uncleanness and pollution upon them ; 
with fire let them burn them. 26. And do thou 
command the children of Israel that there be no 
uncleanness amongst them, for every one who lieth 
with his daughter-in-law 2 or with his mother-in-law 
hath wrought uncleanness ; with fire let them burn 
the man who hath lain with her, and likewise the 
woman, and He will turn away wrath and punishment 
from Israel. 27. And unto Judah we said that his 
two sons had not lain with her, and for this reason 
his seed was established for a second generation, 
and would not be rooted out. 28. For in singleness 
of eye he had gone and sought for punishment, namely, 
according to the judgment of Abraham, 3 which he had 
commanded his sons, Judah had sought to burn her 
with fire. 

The Two Journeys of the Sons of Jacob to 
Egypt (xlii. 1-25; cf. Gen. xlii., xliii.). 

XLII. And in the fust year of the third week of 2171 a m. 
the forty-fifth jubilee the famine began to come into 
the land, and the lain refused to be given to the earth, 
for none whatever fell. 2. And the earth grew 
barren, but in t lie land of Egypt there was food, for 
Joseph had gathered the seed of the land in the seven 
years of plenty and had preserved it. 4 3. And the 
Egyptians came to Joseph that he might give them 
food, and he opened the storehouses where was the 
grain of the first year, and he sold it to the people of 
the land for gold. 5 4. (Now the famine was very sore 
in the land of Canaan), and Jacob heard that there 

1 Cf. Lev. xx. 14. 

2 Cf. Lev. xviii. 15, xx 12 (mode of death not specified; 
but Gen. xxxviii. 24 presupposes burning by fire). 

3 Cf. xx. 4 (note). 4 Cf. Gen. xli. 54. B Cf. Gen. xli. 56. 

192 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xlii 

was food in Egypt, and lie sent his ten sons that they 
should procure food for him in Egypt ; but Benjamin 
he did not send, and (the ten sons of Jacob) arrived 
(in Egypt) among those that went (there.) 5. And 
Joseph recognized them, but they did not recognize 
him, and he spake unto them and questioned them, 
and he said unto them : " Are ye not spies, and have 
ye not come to explore the approaches of the land ? ' 
And he put them in ward. 6. And after that he set 
them free again, and detained Simeon alone and sent 
off his nine brothers. 7. And he filled their sacks 
with corn, and he put their gold in their sacks, and 
they did not know. 8. And he commanded them to 
bring their younger brother, for they had told him 
their father was living and their younger brother. 
9. And they went up from the land of Egypt and they 
came to the land of Canaan ; and they told their 
father all that had befallen them, and how the lord of 
the country had spoken roughly to them, and had 
seized Simeon till they should bring Benjamin. 10. 
And Jacob said : " Me have ye bereaved of my 
children ! Joseph is not and Simeon also is not, and 
ye will take Benjamin away. On me hath your 
wickedness come." x 11. And he said : " My son will 
not go down with you lest perchance he fall sick ; 
for their mother gave birth to two sons, and one hath 
perished, and this one also ye will take from me. If 
perchance he took a fever on the road, 2 ye would 
iDring down my old age with sorrow unto death." 12. 
For he saw that their money had been returned to 
every, man in his sack, and for this reason he feared 
to send him. 13. And the famine increased and be- 
came sore in the land of Canaan, and in all lands save 
in the land of Egypt, for many of the children of the 
Egyptians had stored up their seed for food from the 
time when they saw Joseph gathering seed together 

1 ? An interpretation of Gen. xlii. 36 (" All these things 
are against me "). 

■ " If mischief befall him by the way in the which ye go " 
(Gen. xlii. 38). 

chap, xlii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 193 

and putting it in storehouses and preserving it for the 

years of famine. 14. And the people of Egypt fed 

themselves thereon during the first year of their 

famine. 15. But when Israel saw that the famine was 

very sore in the land, and there was no deliverance, 

he said unto his sons : " Go again, and procure food 

for us that we die not." 16. And they said : " We 

shall not go ; unless our youngest brother go with us, 

we shall not go." 17. And Israel saw that if he did 

not send him with them, they should all perish by 

reason of the famine. 18. And Reuben said : 

" Give him into my hand, and if I do not bring him 

back to thee, slay my two sons instead of his soul." 

And he said unto him : " Me will not go with thee." 

19. And Judah came near and said : " Send him with 

me, and if I do not bring him back to thee, let me 

bear the blame before thee all the days of my life." 20. 

And he sent him with them in the second year of this 2172 a.m. 

week on the first day of the month, and they came to 

the land of Egypt with all those who went, and (they 

had) presents in their hands, stacte and almonds and 

terebinth nuts and pure honey. 21. And they went 

and stood before Joseph, and he saw Benjamin ltis 

brother, and he knew him, and said unto them : " Is 

this your youngest brother? " And they said unto 

him : " It is he." And he said : " The Lord be 

gracious to thee, my son ! " 22. And he sent him 

into his house and he brought forth Simeon unto 

them and he made a feast for them, and they presented 

to him the gift which they had brought in their hands. 

23. And they ate before him and he gave them all a 

portion, but the portion of Benjamin was seven times 

larger than that of any of theirs. 24. And they ate 

and drank and arose and remained with their asses. 

25. And Joseph devised a plan whereby he might 

learn their thoughts as to whether thoughts of peace 

prevailed amongst them, and he said to the steward 

who was over his house : " Fill all their sacks with 

food, and return their money unto them into their 

vessels, and my cup, the silver cup out of which I 


1 9 4 ?HE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xlii 

drink, put it in the sack of the youngest, and send 
them away." 1 

Joseph finally tests his Brethren, and then 
makes himself known to them (xliii. 1-24; 
cf. Gen. xliv., xlv.). 

XLIII. And he did as Joseph had told him, and 
filled all their sacks for them with food and put their 
money in their sacks, and put the cup in Benjamin's 
sack. 2. And early in the morning they departed, 
and it came to pass that, when they had gone from 
thence, Joseph said unto the steward of his house : 
" Pursue them, run and seize them, saying, ' For 
good ye have requited me with evil ; you have stolen 
from me the silver cup out of which my lord drinks.' 
And bring back to me their youngest brother, and 
fetch (him) quickly before I go forth to my seat of 
judgment." 3. And he ran after them and said unto 
them according to these words. 4. And they said 
unto him : " God forbid that thy servants should 
do this thing, and steal from the house of thy lord 
any utensil, and the money also which we found in 
our sacks the first time, we thy servants brought 
back from the land of Canaan. 5. How then should 
we steal any utensil ? Behold here are we and our 
sacks; search, and wherever thou findest the cup in 
the sack of any man amongst us, let him be slain, and 
we and our asses will serve thy lord." 6. And he 
said unto them : 4< Not so, the man with whom I find, 
him only shall I take as a servant, and ye will return 
in peace unto your house." 7. And as he was search- 
ing in their vessels, beginning with the eldest and 
ending with the youngest, it was found in Benjamin's 
sack. 8. And they rent their garments, and laded 
their asses, and returned to the city and came to the 
house of Joseph, and they all bowed themselves on 
their faces to the ground before him. 9. And Joseph 
said unto them : " Ye have done evil." And they 

1 Cf. Gen xliv. 1, 2. 

chap, xliii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 195 

said : " What shall we say and how shall we defend 
ourselves? Our lord hath discovered the transgres- 
sion of his servants ; behold we are the servants of 
our lord, and our asses also." 10. And Joseph said 
unto them : " I too fear the Lord ; as for you, go ye 
to your homes and let your brother be my servant, 
for ye have done evil. Know ye not that a man 
delighteth in his cup as 1 with this cup? * And yet 
ye have stolen it from me." 11. And Judah said : 
" O my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word 
in my lord's ear; two brothers did thy servant's 
mother bear to our father; one went away and was 
lost, and hath not been found, and he alone is left 
of his mother, and thy servant our father loveth him, 
and his life also is bound up with the life of this (lad). 
12. And it will come to pass, when we go to thy ser- 
vant our father, and the lad is not with us, that he 
will die, and we shall bring down our father with 
sorrow unto death. 13. Now rather let me, thy 
servant, abide instead of the boy as a bondsman unto 
my lord, and let the lad go with his brethren, for I 
became surety for him at the hand of thy servant our 
father, and if I do not bring him back, thy servant 
will bear the blame to our father for ever." 14. And 
Joseph saw that they were all accordant in good- 
ness one with another, and he could not refrain him- 
self, and he told them that he was Joseph. 15. And 
he conversed with them in the Hebrew tongue 2 and 
fell on their neck and wept. But they knew him not 
and they began to weep. 16. And he said unto them : 
" Weep not over me, but hasten and bring my father 
to me , and ye see that it is my mouth that speaketh 
and the eyes of my brother Benjamin see. 17. Lor 
behold this is the second year of the famine, and there 
are still five years without harvest or fruit of trees or 
ploughing. 18. Come down quickly ye and your 
households, so that ye perish not through the famine, 

1 Gen. x'iv. 15 (" Know yc not that such a man as I can 
indeed divine ? "). The change in our text may be deliberate. 

2 A Midrashic touch; so liereshxth rabba xciii. 

196 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xliii 

and do not be grieved for your possessions, for the Lord 
sent me before you to set things in order that many 
people might live. 19. And tell my father that I am 
still alive, and ye, behold, ye see that the Lord hath 
made me as a father to Pharaoh, and ruler over his 
house and over all the land of Egypt. 20. And tell 
my father of all my glory, and all the riches and glory 
that the Lord hath given me." 21. And by. the 
command of the mouth of Pharaoh he gave them 
chariots and provisions for the way, and he gave them 
all many-coloured raiment and silver. 22. And to 
their father he sent raiment and silver and ten asses 
which carried corn, and he sent them away. 23. And 
they went up and told their father that Joseph was 
alive, and was measuring out corn to all the nations 
of the earth, and that he was ruler over all the land of 
Egypt. 24. And their father did not believe it, 
for he was beside himself in his mind ; but when he 
saw the wagons which Joseph had sent, the life of his 
spirit revived, and he said : " It is enough for me if 
Joseph live th ; I will go down and see him before I 

Jacob celebrates the Feast of First-fruits and 
journeys to Egypt. List of his Descendants. 

(xliv. 1-34; cf. Gen. xlvi. 1-28). 

XLIV. And Israel took his journey from f Haran f x 
from his house on the new moon of the third month, 
and he went on the way of the Well of the Oath, 2 
and he offered a sacrifice to the God of his father Isaac 
on the seventh of this month. 2. And Jacob re- 
membered the dream that he had seen at Bethel, 3 
and he feared to go down into Egypt. 3. And while 
he was thinking of sending word to Joseph to come 
to him, and that he would not go down, he remained 
there seven days, if perchance he should see a vision 
as to whether he should remain or go down. 4. And 

1 Probably corrupt for " Hebron "; cf. Gen. xxxvii. 14. 
18 Beersheba. ■ Cf. xxvii. 22. 

chap, xliv] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 197 

he celebrated the harvest festival of the first-fruits l 
with old grain, for in all the land of Canaan there was 
not a handful of seed (in the land), for the famine 
was over all the beasts and cattle and birds, and also 
over man. 5. And on the sixteenth the Lord ap- 
peared unto him, and said unto him, " Jacob, Jacob " ; 
and he said, " Here am I." And He said unto him : 
" I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham 
and Isaac ; fear not to go down into Egypt, for I will 
there make of thee a great nation. 6. I shall go 
down with thee, and I shall bring thee up 2 (again), 
and in this land wilt thou be buried, and Joseph 
will put his hands upon thy eyes. Fear not ; go 
down into Egypt." 7. And his sons rose up, and 
his sons' sons, and they placed their father and their 
possessions upon wagons. 8. And Israel rose up from 
the Well of the Oath on the sixteenth of this third 
month, and he went to the land of Egypt. 9. And 
Israel sent Judah before him to his son Joseph to 
examine 3 the Land of Goshen, for Joseph had told 
his brothers that they should come and dwell there 
that they might be near him. 10. And this was the 
goodliest (land) in the land of Egypt, and near to 
him, for all (of them) and also for the cattle. 11. And 
these are the names of the sons of Jacob who went 
into Egypt with Jacob their father. 12. 4 Reuben, 
the first-born of Israel ; and these are the names of 
his sons : Enoch, and Pallu, and Hezron and Carmi 
— five. 5 13. Simeon and his sons; and these are 
the names of his sons : Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, 

1 Cf. Gen. xlvi. 1 (the feast was celebrated on the 15th of 
the third month). 

2 Cf. xxvii. 24, xxxii. 23. 

a " To show the way " (Gen. xlvi. 28). 

4 The number 70, according to our text, includes Jacob 
with his descendants. Another reckoning makes up the 
number by excluding Jacob himself: cf. Exod.' i. 5 and 
Gen. xlvi. 15, 18, 21 . 25, 27. The number 75, in Acts vii. 14. 
is due to the J. XX of Exod. i. 5 and Dcut. x. 22. There 
are certain differences in detail between the list in our text 
and the details given in Genesis; see Charles ad loc. 

6 The father is included in each case. 

198 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xliv 

and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul, the son of the 
Zephathite ! woman — seven. 14. Levi and Ins sons; 
and these are the names of his sons : Gershon, and 
Kohath, and Merari — four. 15. Judah and his sons ; 
and these are the names of his sons : Shela, and Perez, 
and Zerah — four. 16. Issachar and his sons ; and 
these, are the names of his sons : Tola, and Phua, 2 
and Jasub, 8 and Shimron — five. 17. Zebulon and 
his sons ; and these are the names of his sons : Sered, 
and Elon, and Jahleel — four. 18. And these are 
the sons of Jacob, and their sons, whom Leah bore 
to Jacob in Mesopotamia, six, and their one sister, 
Dinah : and all the souls of the sons of Leah, and 
their sons, who went with Jacob their father into 
Egypt, were twenty-nine, and Jacob their father 
being with them, they were thirty. 19. And the 
sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, the wife of Jacob, 
whom she bore unto Jacob, Gad and Asher. 20. And 
these are the names of their sons who went with him 
into Egypt : the sons of Gad : Ziphion, and Haggi, 
and Shuni, and Ezbon, (and Eri) and Areli, and Arodi 
— eight. 21. And the sons of Asher : Imnah, and 
Ishvah, (and Ishvi), and Beriah, and Serah, their one 
sister — six. 22. All the souls were fourteen, and all 
those of Leah were forty-four. 23. And the sons 
of Rachel, the wife of Jacob : Joseph and Benjamin. 
24. And there were born to Joseph in Egypt before 
his father came into Egypt, those whom Asenath, 
daughter of Potiphar priest of Heliopolis bare unto 
him, Manasseh, and Ephraim — three. 25. And the 
sons of Benjamin : Bela and Becher, and Ashbel, 
Gera, and Naaman, and Ehi, and Rosh, and Muppim, 
and Huppim, and Ard — eleven. 26. And all the souls 
of Rachel were fourteen. 27. And the sons of Bilhah, 
the handmaid of Rachel, the wife of Jacob, whom she 

1 i.e. a native of the Canaanite city Zephath ; cf. Judg. 
i. 17. 

1 So LXX, Sam. and other versions. MT Puvah (Gen. 
xlvi. 13). 

1 So Sam. (Gen. xlvi. 13) and LXX = MT lob. 

chap, xliv] THE BOOK OF JUBlLEbb 199 

bare to Jacob, were Dan and Naphtali. 28. And 
these are the names of their sons who went with them 
into Egypt. And the sons of Dan were Hushim, and 
Samon, and Asudi, and 'fjaka, and Salomon — six. 

29. And they died the year in winch they entered 
into Egypt, and there was left to Dan Hushim alone. 1 

30. And these are the names of the sons of Naphtali : 
Jahziel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shallum, and 
'Iv. 2 31. And 'Iv, who was born after the years 
of famine, died in Egypt. 32. And all the souls of 
Rachel were twenty-six. 33. And all the souls of 
Jacob which went into Egypt were seventy souls. 
These are his children and his children's chil- 
dren, in all seventy; but five died in Egypt before 
Joseph, and had no children. 34. And in (he land of 
Canaan two sons of Judah died, Er and Onan, and 
they had no children, and the children of Israel 
buried those who perished, and they were reckoned 
among the seventy Gentile nations. 

Joseph receives Jacob. The Land of Egypt is 
acquired for Pharaoh. Jacob's Death and 
Burial (xlv. 1-16 ; cf. Gen. xlvi. 28 ff., xlvii. n ff.). 

XLV. And Israel went into the country of Egypt, 2172 a m. 
into the land of Goshen, on the new moon of the 
fourth month, in the second year of the third week 
of the forty-fifth jubilee. 2. And Joseph went to 
meet his father Jacob, to the land of Goshen, and he 
fell on his father's neck and wept. 3. And Israel 
said unto Joseph : " Now let me die since I have seen 
thee, and now may the Lord God of Israel be blessed, 
the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac who hath 
not withheld His mercy and His grace from His 
servant Jacob. 4. It is enough for me that I have 
seen thy face whilst ]l amj 3 yet alive; yea, true is 
the vision which I saw at Bethel. Blessed be the 

1 In Gen xlvi. 23 " Hushim " (MT) is mentioned alone. 

2 Cf. Gen. xlvi. 24 and 1 Chron. vii. 13 : 'Iv is omitted in 
both texts. 

3 MT (Gen. xlvi. 30) " that thou art" 

200 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xlv 

Lord my God for ever and ever, and blessed be His 
name." 5. And Joseph and his brothers ate bread 
before their father and drank wine, and Jacob 
rejoiced with exceeding great joy because he saw 
Joseph eating with his brothers and drinking before 
him, and he blessed the Creator of all things who had 
preserved him, and had preserved for him his twelve 
sons. 6. * And Joseph had given to his father and 
to his brothers as a gift the right of dwelling in the 
land of Goshen and in Rameses and all the region 
round about, which he ruled over before Pharaoh. 
And Israel and his sons dwelt in the land of Goshen, 
the best part of the land of Egypt; and Israel was 
one hundred and thirty years old when he came into 
Egypt. 7. And Joseph nourished his father and his 
brethren and also their possessions with bread as 
much as sufficed them 2 for the seven years of the 
famine. 8. And the land of Egypt suffered by 
reason of the famine, and Joseph acquired all the land 
of Egypt for Pharaoh in return for food, and he got 
possession of the people and their cattle and every- 
thing for Pharaoh. 9. And the years of the famine 
were accomplished, and Joseph gave to the people 
in the land seed and food that they might sow (the 
land) fn the eighth year, for the river had overflowed 
all the land of Egypt. 10. For in the seven years 
of the famine it had not overflowed and had irrigated 
only a few places on the banks of the river, but now 
it overflowed and the Egyptians sowed the land, and 
it bore much corn that year. 11. And this was the 
2178 a.m. nrs t year of the fourth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 
12. And Joseph took of the corn of the harvest the 
fifth part for the kirg and left four parts for them for 
food and for seed, and Joseph made it an ordinance 
for the land of Egypt until this day. 13. And Israel 
lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years, and all 
the days which he lived were three jubilees, one 
hundred and forty-seven years, and he died in the 

1 Cf. Gen. xlvii. 11. 

a MT (Gen. xlvii. 12) " according to their families." 

chap, xlv] THE HOOK OF JUBILEES 201 

fourth year of the fifth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 2188 a.m. 

14. And Israel blessed his sons before he died and 
told them everything 1 that would befall them in the 
land of Egypt ; and he made known to them what 
would come upon them in the last days, and blessed 
them and gave to Joseph two portions 2 in the land. 

15. And he slept with his fathers, and he was buried 
in the double cave in the land of Canaan, near Abra- 
ham his father in the grave which he dug for himself 
in the double cave in the land of Hebron. 3 16. And 
he gave all his books and the books of his fathers to 
Levi his son that he might preserve them and renew 
them for his children until this day. 4 

The Death of Joseph. The Bones of Jacob's 
Sons (except Joseph) interred at Hebron. 
The Oppression of Israel by Egypt (xlvi. 
1-16; cf. Gen. 1.; Exod. i.). 

XLVI. And it came to pass that after Jacob died 
the children of Israel multiplied in the land of Egypt, 
and they became a great nation, and they were of 
one accord in heart, so that brother loved brother 
and every man helped his brother, and they increased 
abundantly and multiplied exceedingly, ten weeks 2242 a.m 
of years, all the days of the life of Joseph. 5 2. And 
there was no Satan 6 nor any evil all the days of the 
life of Joseph which he lived after his father Jacob, 
for all the Egyptians honoured the children of Israel 
all the days of the life of Joseph. 3. And Joseph 
died being a hundred and ten years old ; 7 seventeen 
years he lived in the land of Canaan, and ten years 
he was a servant, and three years in prison, and 
eighty years he was under the king, ruling all the land 

1 Cf. Gen. xlix. 1 ff. 2 Cf. Gen. xlviii. 22. 

3 Cf. Gen. 1. 13. 

4 Note that the tribal traditions are represented by our 
author as in the keeping of the priests (Levi and his 

6 Cf. Exod. i. 7. • Cf. xxiii. 29. 

7 Cf. Gen. I. 22, 26; Exod. i. 6. 

202 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xlvi 

of Egypt. 4. And he died and all his brethren and 
all that generation. 5. And he commanded the 
children of Israel before he died that they should 
carry his bones with them when they went forth from 
the land of Egypt. 1 6. And he made them swear 
regarding his bones, for he knew that the Egyptians 
would not again bring forth and bury him in the land 
of Canaan, 2 for Makamar6n, 3 king of Canaan, while 
dwelling in the land of Assyria, fought in the"valley 
with the king of Egypt and slew him there, and pur- 
sued after the Egyptians to the gates of '£rm6n. 4 
7. But he was not able to enter, for another, a new 
king, had become king of Egypt, 5 and he was stronger 
than he, and he returned to the land of Canaan, and 
the gates of Egypt were closed, and none went out 
and none came into Egypt. 8. And Joseph died 

2242 a.m. m th e forty-sixth jubilee, in the sixth week, in the 
second year, and they buried him in the land of 
Egypt, and all his brethren died after him. 9. And 
the king of Egypt went forth to war with the king of 

2263 a.m. Canaan in the forty-seventh jubilee, in the second 
week in the second year, and the children of Israel 
brought forth all the bones of the children of Jacob 
save the bones of Joseph, and they buried them in the 
field in the double cave in the mountain.""" 10. And 
the"mbst (of them) returned tb~Egypt, but a few of 
them remained in the mountains of Hebron, and 

1 Cf. Gen. 1. 25. 

■ Cf. Test. Simeon viii. 3 f. (" For the bones of Joseph the 
Egyptians guarded in the tombs of the kings. For the sorcerers 
told them that on the departure of the bones of Joseph there 
should be throughout all the land darkness and gloom," etc.). 

3 Identification unknown. 

4 i.e. Heroohpolis (close to the desert). 

6 ? Rameses III (1202-1171), founder of the 20th dynasty, 
who repulsed an invasion of peoples from the north and twice 
marched through Canaan, and in North Canaan defeated the 
invaders. The war between Egypt and Canaan, mentioned 
in our text, is referred to in Test. Simeon viii. 2. A war 
between Cush and Egypt, in which Moses led the Egyptians, 
is referred to by Josephus {Ant. ii.-io). Jn Chron. Jerahmeel 
xlv. it is between Cush and Syria. 

chap, xlvi] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 203 

Amram thy father remained with them 1 . 11. And 
the king of Canaan was victorious over the king of 
Egypt, and he closed the gates of Egypt. 12. And 
he aevised an evil device against the children of 
Israel of afflicting them ; and he said unto the people 
of Egypt : 13. " Behold the people of the children 
of Israel have increased and multiplied more than we. 
Come and let us deal wisely with them before they 
become too many, and let us afflict them with slavery 
before war come upon us and before they too fight 
against us ; else they will join themselves unto our 
enemies and get them up out of our land, for their 
hearts and faces are towards the land of Canaan." 
14. And he set over them taskmasters to afflict them 
with slavery; and they built strong 2 cities for 
^Pharaoh, Pithom and Raamses, and they built all 
-the walls and all the fortifications which had fallen 
in the cities of Egypt. 15. And they mado them 
serve with rigour, and the more they dealt evilly 
with them, the more they increased and multiplied. 
16. And the people of Egypt abominated the children 
of Israel. 

The Birth and Early Years oi Moses 

(xlvii. 1-12 ; cf. Exod. ii.). 

XLVII. And in the seventh week, in the seventh 2303 am 
year, in the forty-seventh jubilee, thy father 3 went 
forth from the land of Canaan, and thou wast born 
in the fourth week, in the sixth year thereof, in the 2330 am 
forty-eighth jubilee ; this was the time of tribulation 
on the children of Israel. 2. And Pharaoh, king of 
Egypt, issued a command regarding them that they 

1 This interesting statement apparently implies that some 
of the Hebrew tribes were already in Canaan before the 
Exodus. Or is it a reminiscence of the fact that the tribe 
of Judah absorbed some South Canaanitish tribes which were 

never in Egypt ? Cf. Burncy in Journal of Theological Studies, 

1908, pp. 321-352. 

2 So LXX (Exod. i. 11); MT = ? ** store cities." 
* i. e. Moses* father, Amram. 

204 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, xlvii 

should cast all their male children which were born 
into the river. 3. And they cast them in for seven 
months until the day that thou wast born. And thy 
mother hid thee tor three months, and they told 
regarding her. 4. And she made an ark for thee, and 
covered it with pitch and asphalt, and placed it in 
the flags on the bank of the river, and she placed thee 
in it seven days, and thy mother came by night and 
suckled thee, and by day Miriam, thy sister, guarded 
thee from the birds. 5. And in those days Tharmuth, 1 
the daughter of Pharaoh, came to bathe in the river, 
and she heard thv voice crying, and she told her 
maidens to bring thee forth, and they brought thee 
unto her. 6. And she took thee out of the ark, and 
she had compassion on thee. 7. And thy sister said 
unto her : " Sl^all I go and call unto thee one of the 
Hebrew women to nurse and suckle this babe for 
thee?," And she said (unto her) : " Go." 8. And 
she went- and called thy mother Jochebed, 2 and she 
gave her wages, and she nursed thee. 9. And after- 
wards, when thou wast grown up, they brought thee 
unto the daughter of Pharaoh, and thou didst become 
her son, and Amram thy father taught thee writing, 3 
and after thou hadst completed three weeks they 
brought thee into the royal court. 10. And thou 
2351-2372 wast three weeks of years at court until the time 
a.m. when thou didst go forth from the royal court and 
didst see an Egyptian smiting thy friend who was of 
the children of Israel, and thou didst slay him and 
hide him in the sand. 11. And on the second day 
thou didst find two of the children of Israel striving 
together, and thou didst say to him who was doing 
the wrong : " Why dost thou smite thy brother? ' 
12. And he was angry and indignant, and said : 
" Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? 
Thinkest thou to kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian 
yesterday ? " And thou didst fear and flee on account 
of these words. 

1 Thcrmuthis (Josephus, Ant. ii. 9, 5, 7). 

a Cf. Exod. vi. 20; Num.xxvi.59. 3 Contrast Acts vii. 22. 

chap, xlviii] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 205 

From the Flight of Moses to the Exodus 
(xlviii. 1-19; cf. Exod. ii. 15 if., iv. 19-24, vii.-xiv.). 

XLVIII. And in the sixtli year of the third week 2372 AM. 
of the forty-ninth jubilee thou didst depart and dwell 
in the land of Midian l five weeks and one year. 
And thou didst return into Egypt 2 in the second 
week in the second year in the fiftieth jubilee. 2. 2jioa.m. 
And thou thyself knowest what He spake unto thee 
on Mount Sinai, and what prince Mastema. 3 desired 
to do with thee when thou wast returning into Egypt 
on the way when thou didst meet him at the lodging- 
place. 3. Did he not with all his power seek to slay 
thee and deliver the Egyptians out of thy hand when 
he saw that thou wast sent to execute judgment 
and vengeance on the Egyptians ? 4 4. And I de- 
livered thee out of his hand, and thou didst perform 
the signs and wonders which thou wast sent to per- 
form in Egypt against Pharaoh, and against all his 
house, and against his servants and his people. , 

5. And the Lord executed a great vengeance on them 
for Israel's sake, and smote them through (the 
plagues of) blood and frogs, lice and dog-flies, and 
malignant boils breaking forth in blains ; and their 
cattle by death; and by hail-stones, thereby He 
destroyed everything that grew for them ; and by 
locusts which devoured the residue which had been 
left by the hail, and by darkness ; and (by the death) 
of the first-born of men and animals, and on all their 
idols the Lord took vengeance and burned them with 
fire. 6 6. And everything was sent through thy hand, 

1 Cf. Exod. ii. 15. * Cf. Exod. iv. 19. 

s Notice here the substitution of Satanic agency where 
the original text of Scripture ascribes the action directly 
to Jahvch (cf. Exod. iv. 24); another instance in our ISook 
is xvii. 16. The same tendency can be illustrated from 
I Chron. xxi. 1 compared with 2 Sam. xxiv. 1. 

4 This explanation of the incident described in Exod. iv. 
24 ff. seems to be peculiar to mir author, the real explanation 
being that Moses had failed to circumcise his son (so Targ. 
Ps.-Jon. in Ice). 

r ' An enumeration of the ten plagues. 

2o6 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap .xLvin 

that thou shouldst declare (these things) before they 
were done, and thou didst speak with the king of 
Egypt before all his servants and before his people. 
7. And everything took place according to thy words ; 
ten great and terrible judgments came on the land of 
Egypt that thou mightest execute vengeance on it 
for Israel. 8. And the Lord did everything for 
Israel's sake, and according to His covenant, which 
He had ordained with Abraham that He would take 
vengeance on them as they had brought them by 
force into bondage. 1 9. And the prince of the 
Mastema stood up against thee, and sought to cast 
thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped the 
Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought 
before thee. 10. The evils indeed we permitted them 
to work, but the remedies we did not allow to be 
wrought by their hands. 11. And the Lord smote 
them with malignant ulcers, arid they were not able 
to stand, 2 for we destroyed them so that they could 
not perform a single sign. 12. And notwithstanding 
all (these) signs and wonders the prince of the Mas- 
tema. was not put to shame because he took courage 
and cried to the Egyptians to pursue after thee with 
all the powers of the Egyptians, with their chariots, 
and with their horses, and with all the hosts of the 
peoples of Egypt. 3 13. And I stood between the 
Egyptians and Israel, and we delivered Israel out of 
his hand, and out of the hand of his people, and the 
Lord brought them through the midst of the sea as 
if it were dry land. 14. And all the peoples whom he 
brought to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God 
cast them into the midst of the sea, into the depths 
of the abyss beneath the children of Israel, even as 
the people of Egypt had cast their cluldren into the 
river. 4 He took vengeance on 1,000,000 of them, 
and one thousand strong and energetic men were 

1 Cf. Gen. xv. 13, 14. * Cf.Exod. ix. 11. a Cf. Ex. xiv. 8 ,9. 

* Another example of the lex talionis (cf. iv 31), though a 
distinction may be drawn between ' eye for eye ' (a principle 
of human justice) and ' measure for measure ' (a theory of 
divine retribution) ; cf. Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and 
the Gospels, p. 154 (series i). 

Chap, xlviii THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 207 

destroyed on account of one suckling of the children 
of thy people which they had thrown into the river. 1 
15. And on the fourteenth day and on the fifteenth 
and on the sixteenth and on the seventeenth and on 
the eighteenth the prince of the Mastema. was bound 
and imprisoned behind the children of Israel that he 
might not accuse them. 16. And on the nineteenth 
we let them loose that they might help the Egyptians 
and pursue the children of Israel. 17. And he 2 
hardened their hearts and made them stubborn, and 
the device was devised by the Lord our God that He 
might smite the Egyptians and cast them into the 
sea. 18. And on the fourteenth we bound him that 
he might not accuse the children of Israel on the clay 
when they asked the Egyptians for vessels and 
garments, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and 
vessels of bronze, in order to despoil the Egyptians 3 
in return for the bondage in which they had forced 
them to serve. 19. And we did not lead forth the 
children of Israel from Egypt empty handed. 

Regulations regarding the Passover (xlix. 
1—23 ; cf. Exod. xii.). 

XLIX. Remember the commandment which the 
Lord commanded thee concerning the passover, that 
thou shouldst celebrate it in its season on the four- 
teenth of the first month, that thou shouldst kill it 
before it is evening, and that they should eat it by 
night on the evening 4 of the fifteenth from the time 
of the setting of the sun. 2. For on this night — the 
beginning of the festival and the beginning of the joy 
— ye were eating the passover in Egypt, when all 
the powers of Mastema 5 had been let loose to slay 
all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first- 
born of Pharaoh to the first-born of the captive 

1 Cf. Wisdom xviii. 5. 

2 i. e. the prince of the Mastfma (substituted for Jahveh 
in Exod. xiv. 8). 

3 Cf. Exod. xii 35 f. 4 Cf. Exod. xii. 6. 

5 In Exod. xii. 29 it is Jahveh Himself who smites all the 

208 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap.xliX 

maidservant in the mill, and to the cattle. 3. And 
this is the sign which the Lord gave them : Into every 
house on the lintels of which they saw the blood of a 
lamb of the first year, into (that) house they should 
not enter to slay, but should pass by (it), that all 
those saved that were in the house because 
the sign of the blood was on its lintels. 4. And the 
powers of the Lord did everything according as the 
Lord commanded them, and they passed by all the 
children of Israel, and the plague came not upon 
them to destroy from amongst them any soul either 
of cattle, or man, or dog. 5. And the plague was 
very grievous in Egypt, and there was no house in 
Egypt where there was not one dead, and weeping 
and lamentation. 6. And all Israel was eating the 
flesh of the paschal lamb, and drinking the wine, 1 
and was lauding and blessing, and giving thanks to 
the Lord God of their fathers, and was ready to go 
forth from under the yoke of Egypt, and from the 
evil bondage. 7. And remember thou this day all 
the days of thy life, and observe it from year to year 
all the days of thy life, once a year, on its day, accord- 
ing to all the law thereof, and do not adjourn (it) 
from day to day, or from month to month. 8. For 
it is an eternal ordinance, and engraven on the 
heavenly tables regarding all the children of Israel 
that they should observe it every year on its day 
once a year, throughout all their generations ; 2 and 
there is no limit of days, for this is ordained for ever. 
9. And the man who is free from uncleanness, and 
doth not come to observe it on occasion of its day, 
so as to bring an acceptable offering before the Lord, 
and to eat and to drink before the Lord on the day 
of its festival, that man who is clean and close at 
hand will be cut off ; because he offered not the 
oblation of the Lord in its appointed season, he will 

1 The use of wine at the Passover feast is attested here 
for the first time. For the later prescriptions about the 
four cups of wine drunk at the feast see Mishna, Pesahim x. 

1 For 7-8 cf. vi. 20, 22. 

chap, xltx] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 209 

take the guilt upon himself. 1 10. Let the children 
of Israel come and observe the passover on the day 
of its fixed time, on the fourteenth day of the first 
month, between the evenings, from the third part 
of the day to the third part of the night, for two 
portions of the day are given to the light, and a third 
part to the evening. 2 11. That is that which the 
Lord commanded thee that thou shouldst observe 
it between the evenings. 12. And it is not permissible 
to slay it during any period of the light, but during 
the period bordering on the evening, 3 and let them 
eat it at the time of the evening until the third part 
of the night, 4 and whatever is left over of all its flesh 
from the third part of the night and onwards, let 
them burn it with fire. 13. And they shall not cook 
it with water, nor shall they eat it raw, but roast on 
the fire : 5 they shall eat it with diligence, its head 
with the inwards thereof 7 and its feet they shall 
roast with fire, and not break any bone thereof; 8 
for fof the children of Israel no bone shall be crushed j .• 
14. Eor this reason the Lord commanded the children 
of Israel to observe the passover on the day of its 
fixed time, and they shall not break a bone thereof; 
for it is a festival day, and a day commanded, and 

1 Cf. Num. ix. 13. 

* The Jews divided the night into three parts, or watches 
(6-10 p.m., 10 p.m.-2 a.m., 2-6 a.m.). The corresponding 
parts of the day would be 6-10 a.m., 10 a.m.-2 p.m., and 
2 p.m.-6 p.m. Our text says the last of these was " given " 
to the evening. 

* This is an interpretation of the Biblical phrase "between 
the two evenings " (Exod. xii. 6; cf. R.V. marg). This 
was interpreted by the Sadducecs and Samaritans to mean 
between sunset and complete darkness (and may possibly 
have that meaning here), but by the Pharisees it was under- 
stood to refer to the earlier afternoon (3-6). 

4 t. e. any time between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. The Rabbis 
limited the eating to midnight. 

6 Cf. Exod. xii. 9. 

8 Cf. LXX (fTTrou5ai'a>j) : Heb. (Exod. xii. 11),." in haste." 

7 Cf. Exod. xii. 9. " Cf. Exod. xii. 46. 

* The Latin, which is to be preferred, reads : " There shall 
be no tribulation among the sons of Israel on this day." 



there may be no passing over from clay to day, and 
month to month, but on the day of its festival let it 
be observed. 15. And do thou command the 
children of Israel to observe the passover throughout 
their days, every year, once a year on the day of its 
fixed time, . and it will come for a memorial well 
pleasing before the Lord, and no plague will come 
upon them to' slay or to smite l in that year in which 
they celebrate the passover in its season in every 
respect according to His command. 16. And they 
shall not eat it outside the sanctuary 2 of the Lord, 
but before the sanctuary of the Lord, and all the 
people of the congregation of Israel shall celebrate 
it in its appointed season. 17. And every man who 
hath come upon its day shall eat it in the sanctuary 
of your God before the Lord from twenty years old 3 
and upward ; for thus is it written and ordained that 
they should eat it in the sanctuary of the Lord. 
18. And when the children of Israel come into the 
land which they are to possess, into the land of 
Canaan, and set up the tabernacle of the Lord in the 
midst of the land in one of their tribes until the 
sanctuary of the Lord hath been built in the land, 
let them come and celebrate the passover in the 
midst of the tabernacle of the Lord, and let them 
slay it before the Lord from year to year. 19. And 
in the days when the house hath been built in the name 
of the Lord in the land of their inheritance, they 
shall go there and slay the passover in the evening, 
at sunset, at the third part of the day. 20. And 
they will offer its blood on the threshold of the altar, 
and shall place its fat on the fire which is upon the 
altar, and they shall eat its flesh roasted with fire in 
the court of the house 4 which hath been sanctified in 

1 Cf. Exod. xii. 13. a Cf. 20 below. 

3 i.e. the age when maturity is first attained; cf. Exod. 
xxx. 14 ; Num. i. 32. 

4 Cf. Deut. xvi. 7. In later times the Passover lamb was 
slaughtered, in the Temple, but eaten at home, i. e. in a 
house in Jerusalem. The vast numbers of pilgrims present 
necessitated this extension (cf. Joseph us, War, vi. 9, 3, ii. 14,3). 

chap, xlix] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 211 

the name of the Lord. 21. And they may not 
celebrate the passover in their cities, 1 nor in any place 
save before the tabernacle of the Lord, or before His 
house where His name hath dwelt ; and they will not 
go astray from the Lord. 22. And do thou, Moses, 
command the children of Israel to observe the 
ordinances of the passover, as it was commanded 
unto thee ; declare thou unto them every year |and 
the day of its days, andj 2 the festival of unleavened 
bread, that they should eat unleavened bread seven 
days, (and) that they should observe its festival, 
and that they bring an oblation every day during 
those seven days of joy before the Lord on the altar 
of your God. 23. For ye celebrated this festival 
with haste 3 when ye went forth from Egypt till ye 
entered into the wilderness of Shur ; 4 for on the shore 
of the sea ye completed it. 

Laws regarding the Jubilees and the Sabbath 1 

(1- I-I3). 

L. And after this law I made known to thee the 
days of the Sabbaths in the desert of Sinfai], which 
is between Elim and Sinai. 5 2. And I told thee of 
the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and 1 told 
thee of the jubilee years 6 in the sabbaths of years : 
but the year thereof have I not told thee till ye enter 
the land winch ye are to possess. 3. And the land 
also will keep its sabbaths while they dwell upon it, 7 
and they will know the jubilee year. 4. Wherefore 
I have ordained for thee the year-weeks 8 and the 
years and the jubilees : there are forty-nine jubilees 
.from the days of Adam until this day, and one week 2410 a.m. 
and two years : and there are yet forty yoars to come 
(lit. "distant") for learning the commandments of 2450 a.m. 

1 Cf. Dent. xvi. 5. 

2 Read with the Latin " during its days and during." 

3 Cf. Exod. xii. 11. * Cf. Exod. xv. 22. 

5 Cf. Exod. xvi. 1 (" the wilderness of Sin . . . between 
Elim and Sinai "). e Cf. Lev. xxv. 8. 

7 Cf. Lev. xxvi. 34. 8 A " year-week " = seven years. 

212 THE BOOK OF JUBILEES [chap, l 

the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, 
crossing the Jordan to the west. 5. And the jubilees 
will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of 
fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, 
and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, 
and there will be no more a Satan or any evil 
one, and the land will be clean from that time for 
evermore. 1 

6. And behold the commandment regarding the 
Sabbaths — I have written (them) down for thee — 
and all the judgments of its laws. 7. Six days wilt 
thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath 
of the Lord your God. 2 In it ye shall do no manner 
of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants 
and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the 
sojourner also who is with you. 8. And the man that 
doeth any work on it shall die • 3 whoever desecrateth 
that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife, 4 or whoever 
saith he will do something on it, that he will set out 
on a journey thereon 5 in regard to any buying or 
selling : 6 and whoever draweth water thereon 7 which 
he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, 
and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of 
his tent 8 or out of his house shall die. 9. Ye shall 
do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that 
• ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so 
as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from 
all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, 
who has given you a day of festival, and a holy day : 
and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this 
day among their days for ever. 10. For great is the 

1 The Messianic Age is referred to; cf. 1. 29, xxiii. 26 ff. 

* Cf. Exod. xx. 9-10. 3 Cf. Exod. xxxv. 2. 

4 This ascetic practice is still followed by the Samaritans, 
but not by the Jews. The exact opposite is enjoined in the 
Mishna; see Charles ad loo. 

* Cf. Exod. xvi. 29. It was allowed to go a distance of 
2000 cubits by Rabbinical law; cf. the "Sabbath day's 
journey " of Acts i. 12. 

* Prohibited by Nehemiah (cf. Neh. x. 31, xiii. 16, 17). 

7 This is prohibited by the Karaite Jews. 8 Cf. ii. 29. 

chap, l] THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 213 

honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they 
should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival 
clay, and rest thereon from all labour * which belongeth 
to the labour of the children of men, save burning 
frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices 
before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths. II. This 
work alone shall be done on the Sabbath-days 2 in 
the sanctuary of the Lord your God ; that they may 
atone for Israel with sacrifice continually from day 
to day for a memorial well-pleasing before the Lord, 
and that He may receive them always from day to 
day according as thou hast been commanded. 12. 
And every man who doeth any work thereon, or goeth 
a journey, or tilleth (his) farm, 3 whether in his house 
or any other place, 4 and whoever lighteth a fire, 6 or 
rideth on any beast, 6 or travelleth by ship on the sea, 
and whoever striketh or killeth anything, or slaughter- 
ed 7 a beast or a bird, or whoever catcheth an animal 
or a bird or a fish, or whoever fastcth or maketh war 
on the Sabbaths : 8 13. The man who doetli any of 
these things on the Sabbath shall die, so that the 
children of Israel shall observe the Sabbaths accord- 
ing to the commandments regarding the Sabbaths of 
the land, as it is written in the tables, which He gave 
into my hands that I should write out for thee t lie 
laws of the seasons, and the seasons according to 
the division of their days. 

Herewith is completed the account of the division 
of the days. 

1 Cf. ii. 21. 

* Cf. Matt. xii. 5 (Num. xxviii. 9, 10). 

3 Forbidden; cf. Fxod. xxxiv. 21 (Mishna, Shabb. vii. 2). 

4 Perhaps this clause should follow " any work thereon " 

6 Forbidden; Exod. xxxv. 3; cf. Num. xv. 32 f. 
9 Forbidden by the Jewish oral law. 

7 " Slaughtering " on the Sabbath is forbidden in the 
Mishna (Shahb. vii. 2). 

8 This rule was at first rigidly observed in the Maccabcan 
wars (cf. 1 Mace. ii. 31—38), but afterwards relaxed (cf. 
1 Mace. ii. 41). 


Names and Subjects. 

Abel, iv. i 

Abimelcch, xxiv. 13, 17, 26 
Abraham, see Abram. 
'Abram, father-in-law of 

Terah, xi. 14 
Abram, birth of, xi. 15 
invents an improved 

plough, xi. 23 f. 
observes the sky, xii. 16- 

called Abraham, xv. 7 
his ten trials, xvii. 17 note 
blesses Jacob, xxii. 10 fi.; 

28 f. ; cf. xix. 17 ft. 
death of, xxiii. 1 ; see fur- 
. thcr " Beloved " and 
" Friend of God " 
Abraham's tower (at Hebron) 
xxix. 16; xxxi. 5 f. ; 
xxxiii. 21 ; xxxvi. 12 ; 
xxxvii. 14 
Abraham's bosom, xxii. 25; 

xxiii. 2 
Abrek (Gen. xli. 43), p. 187 

Abysses, the, ii. 2, 16; v. 29 
Adam, creation of, ii. 14 
brought into Hdcn 40 days 
after his creation, iii. 
names the animals, iii. 1-3 
death of, iv. 20 
Adam Admah, xiii. 23 
'Adatan6ses, vii. 15, 17 
'Adoran, xxxviii. 3 
'Adfiram, friend of Ksau, 

xxxvii. 9 
'Adurfim (place-name), 
xxxviii. 8, 9 

'Afexag, viii. 27 

'Afra\, viii. 15 

Ahuzzath, xxiv. 26 

Ai, xiii. 5 

Akrabbim, xxix. 14 

All (God of), phrase, xxii. 10, 

27; xxx. 19; cf. xxxi. 

13, 29, 32 
'Amana, viii. 21 ; ix. 4 
Ammonites, Xxix. 10; xxxvii. 

6, 10 ; xxxviii. 6 
Amorites, xiv. 18; cf. xxix. 

0-1 1 
war of, against Jacob and 

his sons, xxxiv. i-q 
Amram, father of Moses, xlvi. 

Amraphel, xiii. 22 
Aner, xiii. 29 

Angelology of Jubilees, xxiii. f. 
Angels, created on the first 

day, ii. 2 and notes. 
of the presence, i. 27, 20 ; 

ii. 1, 2, 18 ; xv. 27 ; xxxi. 

of sanctification, ii. 2, 18; 

xv. 27; xxxi. 14 
over natural phenomena, 

ii. 2 note 
two chief orders created 

circumcised, xv. 27 
descend in days of Jared to 

instruct mankind, iv. 15 
marry daughters of men, 

v. 1 ; vii. 21 
their punishment, and their 

children, v. 6-1 1 ; vii 25 
guardian, xxxv. 17 




Apocalypse of Abraham (Sla- 
vonic), referred to, pp. 

86, 88, 89, 178 
Apocalyptic passage xxiii. 

1 1-21 
Arabs, xx. 13 
Aram, son of Shem, vii. 18; 

ix. 5 
land of, xxxvii. 6, 9 
Ararat, v. 28 ; viii. 21 ; ix. 5 ; 

x. 15 
Ard, xliv. 25 
Areli, xliv. 20 
Arioch, xiii. 22 
Arpachsad, vii. 18; viii. 1 
Asenath, xxxiv. 20; xl. 10; 

xliv. 24 
Ashbel, xliv. 25 
Asher, xxviii. 21 
Ashtaroth, xxix. 10 
Asshur, son of Shem, vii. 18; 

ix. 3, 6 
land of (= Assyria), viii. 

21 ; ix. 3, 5 
Astidt, xliv. 28 
Atonement, Day of, v. 17- 

18; xxxiv. 18-19 
'Awan, wife of Cain, iv. 1, 9 
'Azura, wife of Seth, iv. 8, 

11; wife of Heber, viii. 


Babel, tower of, x. 19-26 

Babel, viii. 21 

Babylon, xx. 12 

Baraka, wife of Jared, iv. 16 

Baraki'el, brother of Kenan, 
iv. 15 

Baraki'il, brother of Methu- 
selah, iv. 28 

Bashai\, viii. 21 

Bealoth, xiii.' 10 

Becher, xliv. 25 

Beersheba, see Well of the 

Bela, xliv. 25 

Beliar, sons of, xv. 33 
spirit of, i. 20 and note 

Beloved, the (= Abraham), 
xxxi, 15, 20 

Benjamin, xxxii. 3, 33 

Boon, xxix. 10 

Beriah, xiiv. 21 

Bet€nos, wife of Lamech, iv. 

Bethel, xiii. 5; xxvii. 19, 26; 

xxxi. 3; xxxii. 
B6thhor6n, xxxiv. 4 
Bethshan, xxix. 14 
Bethuel, xix. 10; xxvii, 10, 

Bilhah, sister of ZUpah, xxviii. 


Reuben's sin with, xxxiii. 


Blood, eating of forbidden, 
vii. 28, 29; xxi. 6, 18 

Book of life, xxx. 22 and note ; 
xxxvi. 10 

Burial of patriarchs in Ca- 
naan, xlvi. 9 
lack of, a misfortune, xxiii. 


Cain, iv. 1 

death of, iv. 31 

Calendar, reformation of the 
Jewish, a dominant in- 
terest in Jubilees, xvi. ff. 

Canaan, vii. 10-13; ix. 1; 
xxii. 21 
seizes Palestine, x. 29-34 

Canaanites, xiv. 18; xxx. 25 

Canaanitish wives of Joseph, 
Judah, Simeon, xl. 10; 
xxxiv. 20 

Caphtorim, xxiv. 30 

Carmi, xliv. 12 

Chaldees, land of the, ix. 4, 5 

Chedorlaomer, xiii. 22 

Circumcision, an everlasting 
ordinance, xv. 14, 25; 
xx. 3 
observed in the creation of 
the two highest orders of 
angels, xv. 27 
on the eighth day, xv. 14, 

neglect of by Israel, xv. 




Covenant with Noah, vi. 17- 

with Abram, xiv. 20 
Cush, vii. 13 ; ix. 1 
Creation, the new, i. 29; iv. 

26; xxiii. 26-30 ; 1. 5 
the twenty-two works of, 

ii. 1-16 
Creator of all things, xvii. 3 ; 

xxii. 4, 27 ; xlv. 5 

Dan, xiii. 23; xxviii. 18; 
xliv. 27-28 

Danel, iv. 20 

Deborah, xxxii. 30 

Decreasing years of mankind, 
xxiii. 9 fT. 

Demonology of Jubilees, p. 

Demons, sons of the Watch- 
ers, vii. 22, 27 
tempt Noah's sons, x. 1-2, 

5, 8 ; xii. 20 
one tenth of the, left sub- 
ject to Mastema, x. 
to be punished finally with 

Satan, x. 8 
worshipped, xxii. 17 

Dinah, daughter of Jacob, 
xxviii. 23; xxx. 1-3; 
xxxiv. 15 ; xliv. 18 

Dinah, wife of Mahalalel, iv. 

Dothan, xxix. 14; xxxix. 10 
Dreams, xxvii. 1; xxix. 3, 6; 

xxxii.; xxxv. '>; xliv. 

2 f. 

Earth, the, divided, viii. 8 
Eating with Gentiles forbid- 
den, xxii. 16 
Kber, viii. 7 

Eden, Garden of, ii. 7; iv. 
26; viii. 16, it), 2\ 
land of, viii. 1 6, 21 
'Edna, wife of Methuselah, iv. 

wife of Tcrah, xi. 14 
Edom, xxiv. 6; xxxvi. i<>; 
xxxviii. 8 

Edom, kings of, xxxviii. 16- 

made tributary to Israel, 

xxxviii. 10-14 
Edrei, xxix. 10 
Ehi, xliv. 25 
Ela, mountains of, ix. 2 
Elam, son of Shcm, vii. 18; 

ix. 2 
land of, viii. 21 ; xiii. 22 
'Elcw, city of (= Hcliopolis), 

xxxiv. 11 
Eliezcr, xiv. 2 
'Eljo, vii. 22 
Elon, xliv. 17 
'Emazara, wife of Noah, : iv. 

Enoch (a) son of Cain, iv. 9 

(b) son of fared, iv. 16-26; 
xix. i,\, 27 

first to learn writing, iv. 

l 7 

the scribe of judgment in 

the Garden of Eden, iv. 
23-24; x. 17 

(c) son of Kcuben, xxxviii. 
8; xliv. 12 

Enos, son of Scth, iv. 11; 

xix, 24. 
Ephraim, xliv. 24 
Ephrath, xxxii. 34 
Ephron the Hittitc, xxxvi. 2 
Er, xli. 1 
Eri, xliv. 20 
'Ermon ( = Heroonpolis), xlvi. 

Esau, xv. 30; xix. 13; xxix. 

soils his birthright, xxiv. 

breaks with Jacob, xxxvii. 

slain by Jacob, xxxviii. 2 
Eschatology of Jubilees, pp. 

xxviii f. 
Eschatological element in 
Jubilees, xxiii. 18-25, 


Eschol, xiii. 29 
Euphrates, ix. 5; xiv. 18 



Eve, created on the sixth day 
of the second week, iii. 

brought into Eden eighty 
days after her creation, 
iii. o 

Exposure of the person con- 
demned, iii. 31 ; vii. 20 

Eyes, closing of at death, 
xxiii. 1 and note; xliv. 6 

Ezbon, xliv. 20 

Falashas (Abyssinian Jews), 
customs of referred to, 
pp. xix, xxxii 
Fara. (= Africa?), viii. 27 
Feast of Tabernacles, insti- 
tuted by Abraham, xvi. 
celebrated by Jacob, xxxii. 

peculiar features in our 

author's description of, 

pp. xx f. 
Feast of Weeks, date of, pp. 

xviii f. 
celebrated in heaven and 

first revealed to Noah, 

vi. 17-18; xv. i; xxii. 

rules as to observance of, 

vi. 20-22 
Feasts of the. new moons, vi. 

23-29 ' 
Fingers placed on eyes at 

death, see Eyes 
Fire, burning with, xxx. 7; 

xli. 17 and note. 
Flood, the, v. 23-32 
Flood-gates, the, v. 24 
Fornication, punishment for 

xx. 4; xxv. 7; xxxix. 6 
Four sacred places, iv. 26 
Friend of God (title of Abra- 
ham), xix. 9; xxx. 20, 21 
Fruit-trees, law regarding, 

vii. 36 

Ga'as (= Gaash), xxxiv. 4, 7 
Gad, xxviii. 20; xliv. 19, 20 

Gadir (= Cadiz), viii. 23, 26; 

ix. 12 
Gera, xliv. 25 
Gerar, mountains of, xvi. 10; 

xxiv. 12, 19 
Gershon, xliv. 14 
Giants, the, vii. 22 
Gihon, the, viii. 15, 22 
Gilead, xxix. 4, 5, 6 

called " land of Rephaim," 

xxix. 9 
Girgashites, the, xiv. 18 
God, dwells with man in the 

Messianic Age, i. 26 f. 
the Father of the children 

of Jacob, i. 24, 28; see 

also " All (God of) " 
Gog, land of, viii. 25 
Gomer, vii. 19 ; ix. 8 
Graves, eating at, xxii. 17 
Great Sea, the, ix. 6 
Guni, xliv. 30. 
Guardian-angel, see Angel 

Hagar, xiv. 22; xvii. 2; xix. 

Haggi, xliv. 20 
Ham, iv. 33; vii. 8, 13; xxii, 
portion of, viii. 22-24 
Hamath, x. 33; xiii. 2 
Hamor, xxx. 2 
Haran, brother of Abram, 
xii. 10, 14 
land of, xiii. 1 ; xxvii. 3, 
19; xxxv. 10, 12 
Hasid (Hasidim), party of 
the " pious," pp. xxix f. 
rise of, described, xxiii. 16 
and note 
Hazor, xxxiv. 4, 7 
Heap of Witness, xxix. 8 
Heavenly tables, the, iii. 10 

Hebrew the original language 
of men and animals, iii. 
28 note 
forgotten from overthrow 
of Babel till Abram's 
time, xii. 25-26 



Hebrew, original language of 

Jubilees, pp. xii £. 
Hebron, xiii. 10, 21 ; xix. 1 ; 

xxxvi. 20 
Heliopolis, xl. 10 
Hermon, xxix. 10 
Heth, children of, xix. 4, 5 
Hezron, xliv. 12 
Hivites, xiv. 18 
Horites, xxxvii. 10; xxxviii. 

House (= family), xxii. 24 
Huppim, xliv. 25 
Hushim, xliv. 28 
Hyrcanus, John, pp. xxiv, 


Idolatry, rise of, xi. 4 

Abram dissuades Terah 
from practising, xii. 7-8 
forbidden, xx. 7-9; xxi. 
3-5; cf. xxii. 17 
Idols, destroyed, xxxi. 2 
'tjaka, xliv. 28 
'Ijaska, xi. 9 
Immortality of the soul, xxiii. 

not denied by some Sad- 
ducees, p. xxiii 
Imnah, xliv. 21 
Incest, laws regarding, xxxiii. 

10-20; xii. 25 f. 
India, viii. 21 ; ix. 2, 3 
Inheritance, Israel God's, 

xxii. 9, 10, 15 
Inspiration, xxxii. 25 and 

Intercalary days, pp. xviii f. ; 

vi. 23 and note 
Intermarriage with Canaan 
forbidden, xx. 4; xxii. 
20; xxv. 1, 5 
with Gentiles = giving to 
Moloch, xxx. 7-17 and 
Isaac, xv. 21 ; xvi. 13 
sacrifice of, xviii. 1— 13 
blesses Jacob, xxvi. 22 ff. ; 

xxvii. 9 ff. 
blesses Levi, xxxi. 4-17 

Isaac, blesses Judah, xxxi. 

death of, xxxvi. 18 
Ishbak, xix. 12 
Ishmael, xiv. 24; xv. 18, 20, 

23, 30; xvii. 2, 4; xx. 

1. 11 
Ishmaclites, xx. 13 
Ishvah, xliv. 21 
Ishvi, xliv. 21 

Israel, apostasy of, i. 5-9; 
xv. 33-34; x xi". 14. 17- 
captivity of, i. 10 
God's inheritance, xxii. 9, 

10, 15 
God's portion, xv. 31 ; xvi. 

separation of from Gen- 
tiles, see " Eating" and 
" Intermarriage " 
Issachar, xxviii. 22 
*lv, xliv. 30 

Jabbok, xxix. 13, 14 
Jachin, xliv. 13 
Jacob, birth of, xix. 13 
twenty-second from Adam, 

ii. 23 and note 
called Israel, xxxii. 17 
twelve sons of, xxxiii. 22 
sees the future on the 
heavenly tables, xxxii. 
gives his books to Levi, 

xiv. 16 
dies, xiv. 14 
Jahleel, xliv. 17 
Jahziel, xliv. 30 
Jamin, xliv. 13 
Japheth, iv. 33; vii. 9, 12, 

15; »x. 7 
portion of, viii. 25-29 
Jared, iv. 15 
Jasub, xliv. 16 
J a van, vii. 19; ix. 10 
Jcbusitcs, xiv. 18 
Jemuel, xliv. 13 
Jerusalem, i. 28, 29 
Jezer, xliv. 30 



Jochebed, xliv. 8 
Jokshan, xix. 12 
Jordan, the, xxix. 14 
Joseph, xxviii. 24 

carried down into Egypt, 

xxxiv. 11-21 
dies, xlvi. 3 
Jubilee-period = 49 years, 
according to our author, 
p. xvi 
laws regarding, 1. 1-5 
Jubilees, Book of 

various titles of, pp. ix f. 
written originally in 

Hebrew, pp. xii f. 
Versions of, pp. x f. 
relation of to Book of 

Enoch, pp. xiii f. 
relation of to Test. XII 

Patriarchs, p. xiv 
relation of to later Jewish 
Midrashic. works, pp. 
xiv f. 
written by Moses at the 
dictation of an angel, i. 
26; xxiii. 32 
object of, pp. xv ft. 
author of, probably a 
Sadducean priest, pp. 
xxix ff . 
author of, an upholder of 
the Maccabean dynasty, 
p. xxx 
date of, pp. xxxii f. 
glorifies patriarchs, p. 
Judah born, xxviii. 15 
Judah, tribe of, carried into 
captivity, i. 13 
restored from the captivity, 
i. 15-16 
Judas Maccabaeus, p. xxvi 
Judgment, final (of the fallen 
angels and their sons), 

v. IO-II 

doubtful allusion to a, pp. 
xxviii f. ; xxiii. 30 f.. 

Kaber, brother of Reu, xi. 7 
Kabratan, xxxii. 32 

Kadesh, xvi. 10 

Kadmonites, xiv. 18 

Kaftur, viii. 21 

Kainam, viii. 1-4 

Kamaturi, ix. 13 

Karaite Jews, customs of, 

referred to, pp. xxi, 

xxxii ; 212 
Karaso (= Chersonese or 

Rhinocurura), viii. 13 
Karnaim, xxix. 10 
Kenan, iv. 13 
Kenites, xiv. 18 
Kenizzites, xiv. 18 
K6s6d, brother of Arpachsad, 

viii. 6 
grandfather of 'CJra, the 

wife of Reu, xi. 1 
Keturah, xix. 11; xx. 1, 11, 

identified with Hagar in 

later Jewish tradition, 

p. 113 note 
Kirjath Arba, xix. 1 
Kittim = Macedonians, xxiv. 

28, 29; cf. xxxvii. 10 
Kohath, xliv. 14 

Laban, xix. 10; xxvii. 3, 10; 

xxviii. 1 
Lamech, iv. 27 
Land to lie fallow every 

seventh year, vii. 37 
Law, the, given •through 

angels, i. 27 
transmitted through the 

patriarchs, vii. 38 
Leah, xxviii. 3 

death of, xxxvii. 21 
Lebanon, viii. 21; ix. 4; xii. 

Levi, birth of, xxviii. 14 

ordained to the priesthood 
for the destruction of 
Shechem, xxx. 17-23 

ordained to the priest- 
hood because he was the 
tenth son, xxxii. 2 

pre-eminence of, over 
Judah, xxxi. 14-17 



Lex Talionis, pp. xxi f. ; iv. 

31; xlviii. 14 anil note; 

cf. vii. 33 
Lomna, wife of Pcicg, x. 18 
Lot, xii. 30; xiii. 1 , xvi. 7. 
LubAr, v. 26 ; vii 1 
Lud, vii. 18 ; ix. f>, io, 1 r 
Luz, xxvii. 19, 20 

Ma'anisakir (corrupt tor 

Shakir of Mahanaim), 

xxxiv. 4, 7 
Maccabcan victories, scenes 

of, alluded to, xxiii. 21- 

Madai, vii. 19; viii. 5; ix. 


obtains Media, x. 35-36 
Macdai (= Media), viii. 21 
MagdalAdrA'ef, xxxiii. 1 
Magog, vii. 19 ; ix. 8 
Mahalalel, iv. 14, 15; xix. 24 
Mahalath, xxix. 18 
MAkamAron, xlvi. 
Mamre (a person), xiii. 29 

(a place), xiv. 10; xvi. 1 
Manasseh, xliv. 24 
Marriage with sisters ceases 
in Mahalalcl's time, iv. 

(one man with two sisters), 

xxviii. 8 ft 
elder sister precedes youn- 
ger, xxviii. 6 ff. 
mixed, p. 154 note (xxx. 7) 
Mastema, x. 8; xi. 5, 11; 
xix. 28 
= Satan, x. 8, 11 
prince or chief, xvii. 16; 

xlviii. 2 
prince of the, xviii. 9, 12; 
xlviii. 9, 12, 15 
Ma'uk, sea of, viii. 22, 26 
Me'at (= Maeotis), viii. 12, 

27 ; ix. 8 
Mebri, mountains of, ix. 2 
Medan, xix. 12 
Mclchizcdck, xiii. 25 
Melka, wife of Levi, xxxiv. 20 
wife of, viii. 5 

Melka, wife of Nahor, xix. 10 

wife of Serug, xi. 7 
Mcrari, xliv. 14 
Mcshcch, vii. 19; ix. 12 
Mesopotamia, ix. 5; xxvii. 

10, 12, 13; xxix. 18 

Messiah from Judah, xxxi. 18 

Messianic kingdom, gradual 

development of the, i. 

29; v. 12; xxiii. 26-30 

righteous do not share in 

the, xxiii. 30, 31 
woes, xxiii. 9, 11-15, 17- 
19, 22-25 
Methuselah, iv. 27 
Midian, xix. 12 
Misur, xxix. 10 
Mizraim, vii. 13; ix. 1 
Moab, xxxvii. 6, 10; xxxviii. 

Moloch, xxx. 10 
Moon, polemic against cal- 
culations by the, vi. 36 
Moses born, xlvii. 1 

twenty-one years at court 

of l'haraoh, xlvii. 10 
thirty-six years in Midian, 
xlviii. 1 
Most High, the, xxxvi. i(> 
Mount of the Last, iv. 10 
Mu'ak, wife of Shelah, viii. 6 
Mualeleth, wife of Kenan, iv. 

Muppim, xliv. 25 

Naaman, xliv. 25 

Nahor, father of Terah, xi. 8 

son of Terah, xii. 11 
Name (of God), xxiii. 21; 

xxx. 15 ; xxxvii. 7 
NAphidim, vii. 21 
Naphil, vii. 22 
Naphtali, xxviii. 19; xliv. 30 
Navel of the earth, viii. 19 
Ncbaioth, xvii. 14 
Nebrod, viii. 7 
NeclAtamA'uk, vii. 14, 17 
NestAg, xi. 9 

Ni'imAn, wife of Zabulon, 
xxxiv. -20 



Nineveh, ix. 3 

Noah, iv. 28; xix. 24, 27; 
xxii. 13 
ordinances of, vii. 20-39 
Noam, wife of Enos, iv. 13 

Ohad, xliv. 13 

Old age, troubles of, xxiii. 

1 2 if. 
Onan, xliv. 4, 5 
'Ora, wife of Reu, xi. 1 

Pallu,. xliv. 12 

Paran, wilderness of, xvii. 

1 2 ; xx. 12 
Paronomasiae, iv. 9, 15, 28; 

viii. 5, 8; x. 18, 26; xi. 

6, 12 
Peleg, viii. 8 ; x. 18 
Pentateuch, the book of the 

first Law written by 

an angel, i. 27 ; vi. 22 ; 

xxx. 12, 21 
Perez, xli. 21 ; xliv. 15 
Perizzites, xiv. 18; xxx. 25 
Phakorites, xiv. 18 
Pharaoh, contemporary of 

Abram, xiii. 13 
contemporary of Joseph, 

xl. 1, 3, 5, etc. 
contemporary of Moses, 

xlvii. 2 
Pharnak, ix. 2 
Phicol, xxiv. 26 
l J hilistia, xxxvii. 6, 10 
Philistines, xxiv. 14, 15, etc. 
Phua, xliv. 16 
Pithom, xlvi. 14 
Plagues, the ten, xlviii. 5-1 1 
Plant, the, of uprightness, i. 

16; xvi. 26; xxi. 24; 

xxxvi. 6 
Plough, the invention of the, 

xi. 23-24 
Potiphar, chief of the cooks, 

xxxiv. 11 ; xxxix. 2 
Priest of the Most High God, 

xxxii. 1 
Purification, laws of, iii. 10-12 
Put, vii. 13 ; ix. f 

Qafratfcf, xxxiv. 15 
Qelt (= Celts), viii. z(> 

Kaamses, xiv. 6; xlvi. 14 
Kachel, xxviii. 1,9; xxxii. 34 
Rafa (. Rhipaean Moun- 
tains) viii. 12, 16 
Rake'el, brother of Lamech, 

iv. 33 
Rasu'eja, wife of Arpachshad, 

viii. 1 
Rasujal, iv. 16 
Rasu'u, wife of Naphtali, 

xxxiv. 20 
Ravens put to flight by 

Abram, xi. 18-22 
Rebecca, xix. 10, 13, 16; 

xxxv. 27 
blesses God, xxv. 18 ff. 
blesses Jacob, xxv. 15 fi. 
Red Sea, the, viii. 21 ; ix. 2, 4 
Rephaim, the, xiv. 18; xxix. 

Resurrection, no, of the body, 

xxiii. 30 
Retaliation, see Lex Talionis 
Reu, x. 18 
Reuben, xxviii. 11 

sin of, with Bilhah, xxiii. 

R6bel (corrupt for Arbael), 

xxxiv. 8 
Rosh, xliv. 25 

Sabbath, the, to be kept by 

the highest angels and 

Israel, ii. 17-21, 31 

not for the inferior angels, 

nor for the Gentiles, ii. 

2, 31 
first celebrated by Jacob, 

ii. 23, 31 
laws for the observance of 

the, i. 6-13 ; ii. 25-30 
various interpretations of 

the term, in relation to 

the feast of the weeks, 

xv. i 
Sacrifices to the dead, xxii. 17 
to demons, i. 11; xxii. 17 



Sadducees, pp. xxi, xxx ff. ; 

209 note 
Salem, city of, xxx 1 
Sallum, xliv. 28 
Salt Sea, xiii. 22 
Salt, to be used in sacrifices, 

xxi. n 
Samaritans, customs of re- 
ferred to, vii. 36 and 

note; xv. 14 ; p. 200 

Samon, xliv. 28 
Sanir (= Biblical Scnir), viii. 

21 ; ix. 4 
Sarai, xii. 9 

called Sarah, xv. 15 
death of, xix. 2, 7 
Satan, x. 1 1 

to be punished finally, x. 8 
confined at different 

periods, xxiii. 29; xl. 9; 

xlvi. 2 ; I.5 
absence of, xxiii. 29; xl. 

10; xlvii. 2 ; I.5 
substituted for direct 

divine agency, xvii. 16; 

xlviii. 2, 17; p. 205 note 
Seasons, the, xxxix. 16 
SedeqeTSlObab, vii. iO, 17 
Seir, xxix. 13, 18 
Sellasar, xiii. 22 
Selo (— Shiloh), xxxiv. 4, 7 
Sephantiphans, xl. 10 
Seragan (= Saltan), xxxiv. 

4. 7 
Serah, xliv. 21 
Sered, xliv. 17 
S6roh, xi. 1, 6 
Serug, xi. 6 
Seth, iv. 17; xix. 24 
Shallum, xliv. 30 
Shaul, xliv. 13 
Shechcm ; city of, xiii. 1 
destroyed by Levi and 

Simeon, xxx. 4 <> 
taken from the Amorites 

by Jacob and his sons. 

xxxiv. 2 8 
Shechem, son of Hamor, 

XXX. 2 

Shelah, son of Arpachshad, 

viii. 5, 6 
son of Judah. xli. 6, 7 
Shem, iv. 33; vii. 9, 11, 12, 

16; xix. 24, 27 
lot of, viii. 12-21 
Shcol, a place of punishment 

but not of fire, vii. 29; 

xxii. 22 ; xxiv. 31 
Shimron, xliv. 16 
Shinar, land of, ix. 3; x. 

18, 19, 20; xiii. 22 
Shua, xix. 12 
Shuni, xliv. 20 
Shur, xvi. 10 
Siddim, xiii. 22 
Simeon, xxviii. 13; xxx. 4; 

xxxiv. 20, 21 ; xliv. 13 
Sina'ar, father-in-law of 

Pcleg, x. 18 
Sinai, i. 2, 5 ; viii. 19 
Six days of creation, ii 1— 14 
Sodom, xiii. 17, 22; xvi. 5; 

xx. 5, 6; xxii. 22 
Son of God, the individual 

Israelite a, i. 24, 25, 28; 

xix. 29 
Spirit, a holy, i. 21, 23 

of righteousness (or truth), 

xxv. 14 
Sun, the, to regulate the year, 

ii. 9 ; vi. 36-38 

Tables, two, of stone, i. 1 
Tamar, xli. 1, 6, 8, i(>, 19 
Tamnatares (— Timnath- 

heres), xxxiv. 8 
Tanais (— loan), xiii. 12 
Taphu, xxxiv. 4 
Temple, the second, i. 17 
Terah, xi. 10 
Tergal, xiii. 22 
Tharmuth, xlvii. 5 
Third month, i. 1 
Thousand years = one day, 

iv. 30 
Thousand years of life for the 

righteous, xxiii. 27 (iv. 

30; xxiii. 15) 
Tigris, ix. 2, 5 



Timnah, xli. 8, 9 

Tina (= Tanais — Don), viii. 

12, i6, 25, 28; ix. 2, 8 
Tiras. vii. 19; ix. 13 
Tithes, xiii. 25, 26; xxxii. 2, 

8, 9, 10-15 
double, xxxii. 9-1 1 
Tola, xliv. 16 
Tubal, vii. 19; ix. 11 
Twenty-two — a significant 

number, ii. 23 

'Ur, father-in-law of Reu, 

xi. 1 
Ur, city of, xi. 3, 7, 8; xii. 

Vision, xxiv. 1 

Visions, xxxii. 21 ; xliv. 3 ff . ; 

xlv. 4 
Vows, xxxi. 26 fi. 

War forbidden on the Sab- 
bath, i. 12 

Washings, obligatory in con- 
nection with sacrifices, 
xxi. 16 

Watchers, the, see Angels 

Way (= religion), xxiii. 21 

Weeks, feast of, pp. xviii f . ; 
xxii. 1 

Well of the Oath {see Beer- 
sheba), xvi. 11, 15; xviii. 
17; xxii. 1; xxiv. 21, 
26; xxvii. 19; xxix. 17; 
xliv. 1 

Wine, to be drunk at the 
Passover, xlix. 6, 9 

Wives of patriarchs, xxxiv. 
20 ; xli. 7 

Woods to be used in sacrific- 
ing, xxi. 12-14 

Wreaths, xvi. 30 and note 
(cf. pp. xx. f.) 

Year, the, = 364 days, vi. 
430, from birth of Isaac to 
the Exodus, xiv. 13 

Zabulon, xxviii. 23 
Zeboim, xiii. 23; xvi. 5 
Zephathite, xliv. 13 
Zerah, xli. 21 ; xliv. 15 
Zilpah, sister of Bilhah, 

jcxviii. 3, 9; xliv. 19 
Zimram, xix. 12 
Zion, i. 28, 29; viii. 19 
Ziphion, xliv. 20 

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